- 1. A standardized test for measuring psychological, personality, or behavioral characteristics. SEE ALSO: score, test. 2. SYN: squama. 3. A small thin plate of horny epithelium, resembling a fish s., cast off from the skin. 4. To desquamate. 5. To remove tartar from the teeth. 6. A device by which some property can be measured. [L. scala, a stairway]- activities of daily living s. a s. to score physical activity and its limitations, based on answers to simple questions about mobility, self-care, grooming, etc; widely used in geriatrics, rheumatology, etc.- adaptive behavior scales a behavioral assessment device to quantify the levels of skills of mentally retarded and developmentally delayed individuals in interacting with the environment; consists of three developmentally related factors: 1) personal self-sufficiency, e.g., eating, dressing; 2) community self-sufficiency, e.g., shopping, communicating; 3) personal and social responsibility, e.g., use of leisure time, job performance. See intelligence.- Ångström s. a table of wavelengths of a large number of light rays corresponding to as many Fraunhofer lines in the spectrum.- Baumé s. a hydrometer s. for determining the specific gravity of liquids heavier and lighter than water, respectively: for liquids lighter than water, divide 140 by 130 plus the Baumé degree; for liquids heavier than water, divide 145 by 145 minus the Baumé degree.- Bayley Scales of Infant Development a psychological test used to measure the developmental progress of infants over the first 2 1/2 of life; consists of three scales: mental, motor, and behavior record.- Binet-Simon s. forerunner of individual intelligence tests, particularly the Stanford-Binet intelligence s., and sometimes referred to as the Binet s..- Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment S. a s. used by obstetricians, pediatricians, and pediatric psychologists to assess the sensory, motor, emotional and physical development of the neonate, usually beginning at birth or in the first month of life.- Cattell Infant Intelligence S. a standardized s. for assessment of the cognitive development of infants between the ages of 3 and 30 months.- Celsius s. a temperature s. that is based upon the triple point of water (defined to be 273.16 K) and assigned the value of 0.01°C; this has replaced the centigrade s. because the triple point of water can be more accurately measured than the ice point, although, for most practical purposes, the two scales are equivalent.- centigrade s. a thermometer s. in which there are 100 degrees between the freezing point of water (assigned the value of 0.0°C) and the boiling point of water at sea level; technically, supplanted by the Celsius s.. Cf.:Celsius s..- Charrière s. SYN: French s..- Columbia Mental Maturity S. an individually administered intelligence test that provides an estimate of the intellectual ability of children; provides mental ages ranging from 3–12 years and requires no verbal response and minimal motor response. [Columbia University, NY]- coma s. a clinical s. to assess impaired consciousness; assessment may include motor responsiveness, verbal performance, and eye opening, as in the Glasgow (Scotland) c.s., or the same three items and dysfunction of cranial nerves, as in the Maryland (U.S.) c.s.- expanded disability status s. (EDSS) a commonly used rating system for evaluating the degree of neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis, based on neurologic findings, and not symptoms; there are 10 grades in all, in steps and half-steps ( e.g., 4, 4.5, 5), with “1” being neurologically normal and “10” being death. SYN: Kurtzke multiple sclerosis disability s..- Fahrenheit s. a thermometer s. in which the freezing point of water is 32°F and the boiling point of water 212°F; 0°F indicates the lowest temperature Fahrenheit could obtain by a mixture of ice and salt in 1724; °C = 59(°F − 32).- French s. (F) a s. for grading sizes of sounds, tubes, and catheters as based on a diameter of 13 mm equaling 1 F on the s. ( e.g., 3 F = 1 mm); grading to s. is carried out using a metal plate with holes ranging from 13 mm to 1 cm in diameter. SYN: Charrière s..- Guttman s. a measurement s. that ranks response categories to a question with each unit representing an increasingly strong expression of an attribute such as pain or disability.- Hamilton depression rating s. a list of specific symptoms used as a measure of severity of depression.- hardness s. a qualitative s. in which minerals are classified in order of their increasing hardness, based on the fact that the harder of two materials will scratch the softer and will not be scratched by it. The s. lists 15 substances: 1, talc; 2, gypsum; 3, calcite; 4, fluorite; 5, apatite; 6, orthoclase, periclase; 7, vitreous pure silica; 8, quartz, stellite; 9, topaz; 10, garnet; 11, tantalum carbide, fused zirconia; 12, fused alumina; 13, silicon carbide; 14, boron carbide; 15, diamond. SYN: Mohs s..- homigrade s. a special thermometer s. in which 100° indicates the normal human temperature (98.6°F, 37°C), 0° the freezing point, and 270° the boiling point of water.- interval s. like a temperature s. in centigrade or Fahrenheit units, a s. on which the intervals are equal but which has an arbitrary zero point; e.g., intelligence quotient values are values along an interval s..- Karnofsky s. a performance s. for rating a person's usual activities; used to evaluate a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure.- Kelvin s. temperature s. in which the triple point of water is assigned the value of 273.16 K; °C = K − 273.15.- Leiter International Performance S. a nonverbal (performance) test for measuring intelligence that contains norms for each age between 2 and 18; originally developed as a method of assessing the comparative intellectual abilities of Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese children, but now occasionally used for assessing slow learners and those who are blind, deaf, or verbally handicapped.- Likert s. ordinal s. of responses to a question or statement, ordered in hierarchical sequence from strongly negative to strongly positive. Used mainly in behavioral sciences and psychiatry.- masculinity-femininity s. any s. on a psychological test that assesses the relative masculinity or femininity of an individual; scales vary and may focus, for example, on basic identification with either sex or preference for a particular sex role.- ordinal s. a s. that is based on classification of persons or things into ordered qualitative categories, such as socioeconomic status.- pH s. SYN: Sörensen s..- Rahe-Holmes social readjustment rating s. a widely used s. in the social and behavioral sciences that assigns values to significant life events such as marriage, birth of offspring, bereavement, loss of job; such events correlate with emotional states.- Rankine s. a thermometer s. in which each degree Rankine (°Rank) is equal to the Fahrenheit but applied to the absolute temperature s. with its zero point at absolute zero; °Rank = °F + 459.67.- Réaumur s. a thermometer s. in which each degree Réaumur (°R) is 180 of the temperature difference between the freezing point and boiling point of pure water at 1 atm, with 0°R set at the freezing point and 80°R set at the boiling point of water.- Shipley-Hartford s. a test of intellectual and conceptual aptitude. [Hartford Retreat, CT, where Shipley was employed]- Sörensen s. the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, used as a s. for expressing acidity and alkalinity. SEE ALSO: pH. SYN: pH s..- Stanford-Binet intelligence s. a standardized test for the measurement of intelligence consisting of a series of questions, graded according to the intelligence of normal children at different ages, the answers to which indicate the mental age of the person tested; primarily used with children, but also contains norms for adults standardized against adult age levels rather than those of children, as formerly was the case. SYN: Binet test.- Wechsler-Bellevue s. a measure of general intelligence superseded by the Wechsler adult intelligence s. and its subsequent revision. SEE ALSO: Wechsler intelligence scales.- Wechsler intelligence scales continuously revised and updated standardized scales for the measurement of general intelligence in preschool children (Wechsler preschool and primary s. of intelligence), in children (Wechsler intelligence s. for children), and in adults (Wechsler adult intelligence s., the successor to the Wechsler-Bellevue s.).- Zubrod s. a 5-point s. similar to the 10-point Karnofsky s.; both measure the performance status of a patient's ambulatory nature, from normal activity to total dependence on others for care. SEE ALSO: Karnofsky s..
* * *scale 'skā(ə)l n1 a) either pan or tray of a balanceb) a beam that is supported freely in the center and has two pans of equal weight suspended from its ends usu. used in pl.2) an instrument or machine for weighingscale n1) a small thin dry lamina shed (as in many skin diseases) from the skin2) a film of tartar encrusting the teethscale vb, scaled; scal·ing vt to take off in thin layers or scales <\scale tartar from the teeth> vi1) to separate or come off in thin layers or laminaescale n1) a series of marks or points at known intervals used to measure distances (as the height of the mercury in a thermometer)2) a graduated series or scheme of rank or order3) a graded series of tests or of performances used in rating individual intelligence or achievement
* * *1. n. any of the flakes of dead epidermal cells shed from the skin.
Medical dictionary. 2011.