(1) A deviation or irregularity. For example, a chromosome aberration is a deviation from the normal chromosome number or the normal chromosome structure. In this sense, aberration is also synonymous with deflection, departure, divergence, diversion, turning. (2) A mental aberration is a significant deviation from normal mental activity. In this sense, aberration is synonymous with mental derangement, mental illness, psychopathy.
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1. Deviating from the normal course or pattern. 2. Deviant development or growth. SEE ALSO: chromosome. [L. aberratio]
- chromatic a. the difference in focus or magnification of an image arising because of a difference in the refraction of different wavelengths composing white light. SYN: chromatism (2), color a., newtonian a..
- chromosome a. any deviation from the normal number or morphology of chromosomes; also the phenotypic consequences thereof.
- color a. SYN: chromatic a..
- coma a. 1. the distortion of image formation created when a bundle of light rays enters an optical system not parallel to the optic axis. 2. in botany, any tuft, as the hairs on a seed, or the greenery on a radish or a pineapple. SYN: coma (3). [G. kome, hair, foliage]
- curvature a. lack of spatial correspondence causing the image of a straight extended object to appear curved.
- dioptric a. SYN: spherical a..
- distortion a. the faulty formation of an image arising because the magnification of the peripheral part of an object is different from that of the central part when viewed through a lens. SEE ALSO: Petzval surface.
- lateral a. in spherical a., the distance between paraxial focus of central rays on the optic axis.
- longitudinal a. in spherical a., the distance separating the focus of paraxial and peripheral rays on the optic axis.
- mental a. disturbed thought or behavior that connotes a psychological or psychiatric impairment. See delusion.
- meridional a. an a. produced in the plane of a single meridian of a lens.
- monochromatic a. a defect in an optical image arising because of the nature of lenses; the main types are spherical, coma, curvature, and distortion a., and astigmatism of oblique pencils.
- newtonian a. SYN: chromatic a..
- optical a. failure of rays from a point source to form a perfect image after traversing an optical system.
- spherical a. a monochromatic a. occurring in refraction at a spherical surface in which the paraxial and peripheral rays focus along the axis at different points. SYN: dioptric a..
- ventricular a. SYN: aberrant ventricular conduction.

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ab·er·ra·tion .ab-ə-'rā-shən n
1) failure of a mirror, refracting surface, or lens to produce exact point-to-point correspondence between an object and its image
2) unsoundness or disorder of the mind
3) an aberrant organ or individual
ab·er·ra·tion·al -shnəl, -shən-əl adj

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(in optics) a defect in the image formed by a lens. In chromatic aberration the image formed by a lens has coloured fringes as a result of the different extent to which light of different colours is refracted by glass. It is corrected by using an achromatic lenses. In spherical aberration, the image is blurred because rays from the object come to a focus in slightly different positions as a result of the curvature of the lens: the rays passing more peripherally through the lens are bent more than those passing through centrally. This occurs even with monochromatic light.

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ab·er·ra·tion (ab″ər-aґshən) [L. aberratio, q.v.] deviation from the usual course or condition. unequal refraction or focalization of light rays by a lens, resulting in degradation of the image they produce. in cardiology, aberrant electrical impulse conduction.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • aberration — [ aberasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1753; « éloignement » 1633; lat. aberratio, par l angl. 1 ♦ État d une image qui s écarte de la réalité. ♢ Astron. Déplacement apparent d un corps céleste causé par les effets combinés du mouvement de l observateur… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Aberration — has several meanings:*An abnormality of chromosomes *A disorder in one s mental state (see Mental illness) In optics: *Optical aberration, an imperfection in image formation by an optical system **Spherical aberration, which occurs when light… …   Wikipedia

  • Aberration — Ab er*ra tion, n. [L. aberratio: cf. F. aberration. See {Aberrate}.] 1. The act of wandering; deviation, especially from truth or moral rectitude, from the natural state, or from a type. The aberration of youth. Hall. Aberrations from theory.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Aberration [1] — Aberration (Abirrung), a) des Lichts. Die Aberration des Fixsternlichts, entdeckt von James Bradley 1727 [1], besteht in einer scheinbaren jährlichen Bewegung aller Fixsterne in Ellipsen, die wir als schiefgesehene Kreisbahnen von 41 Sekunden… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Aberration — (von lateinisch aberratio Abirrung , Abweichung ) steht für: Aberration (Astronomie), scheinbare Ortsveränderung von Gestirnen durch die Endlichkeit der Lichtgeschwindigkeit Aberration (Gravitation), ein für newtonsche Gravitation bei zu geringer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Aberration [2] — Aberration (Abirrung) des Lichts. Die Aberration des Lichts der Fixsterne wurde von James Bradley 1728 gefunden, als er nach der jährlichen Parallaxe der Fixsterne suchte. In dieser jährlichen Parallaxe – einer durch die Bewegung der Erde um …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Aberration — Aberration, (Abirrung des Lichts). Der Umstand, daß auch das Licht, das von den Sternen zu uns strahlt, eine bestimmte Zeit braucht, um einen bestimmten Raum zu durchlaufen, gleichzeitig damit aber auch die Erde sich bewegt, verursacht, daß wir… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • aberration — 1 *deviation, deflection Analogous words: abnormality, aberrancy (see ABNORMAL): *error, blunder, mistake, slip, lapse: *fault, failing: anomaly (see PARADOX) Antonyms: conformity: regularity Contrasted words: normality (see …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • aberration — [ab΄ər ā′shən] n. [L abberatio < aberrare: see ABERRANT] 1. a departure from what is right, true, correct, etc. 2. a deviation from the normal or the typical 3. mental derangement or lapse 4. Astron. a small, periodic apparent change in the… …   English World dictionary

  • aberration — [n1] state of abnormality delusion, eccentricity, oddity, peculiarity, quirk, strangeness, weirdness; concept 647 Ant. conformity, normality, regularity, soundness aberration [n2] different from that expected departure, deviation, difference,… …   New thesaurus

  • Aberration — oder Abirrung des Lichts, eine von Bradley an den Fixsternen 1725 entdeckte und 1728 ihrem Grunde nach erkannte jährliche scheinbare Verschiebung der Himmelskörper, so daß z.B. jeder Fixstern um seinen wirklichen Standpunkt jährlich eine kleine… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

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