neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
dyspnea with cyanosis in the newborn, a condition caused by deficiency of surfactant. Prodromal signs include dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins. It is usually seen in infants who are premature, have diabetic mothers, or were delivered by cesarean section; sometimes there is no known cause. Some infants die of respiratory failure in the first few days of life and at autopsy have eosinophilic hyaline material lining the alveoli, alveolar ducts, and bronchioles. Called also respiratory distress s. of newborn and idiopathic respiratory distress of newborn.

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (A), Ground-glass appearance and air bronchograms. (B), Alveoli are collapsed and the alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles are dilated and lined by hyaline membrane.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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