- transfer RNA
- transfer RNA n a relatively small RNA that transfers a particular amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation called also adapter RNA, soluble RNA, tRNA compare MESSENGER RNA
* * *a type of RNA whose function is to attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain being synthesized at a ribosome. See also translation.
* * *(tRNA) small RNA molecules, 73â€“93 nucleotides, occurring in cells in 20 or more varieties and functioning in translation; each variety carries a specific amino acid to a site specified by an RNA codon, binding to amino acid and ribosome, and to the codon via an anticodon region. All have numerous modified bases and extensive secondary structure; see illustration.
Schematic diagram of features common to transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, depicting the anticodon and amino acid attachment regions. Lines between chains represent hydrogen-bonded base pairs. (A), Backbone model; (B), planar model. The characteristic cloverleaf is formed by the hairpin and loop structures that result from intrachain hydrogen bonding. Single letter code for bases: A, adenine; C, cytosine; G, guanine; R, any purine; T, thymine; U, uracil; A, adenine; Y, any pyrimidine; ψ, pseudouridine.
Medical dictionary. 2011.