Whole-arm translocation

Whole-arm translocation
A type of chromosome rearrangement, also called a Robertsonian translocation, in which there is fusion of an entire long arm of one acrocentric chromosome with a similarly intact long arm of another acrocentric chromosome. The short arms of the chromosomes participating in the translocation are usually lost. Acrocentric chromosomes have their centromere near but not at the very end of the chromosome. In humans, chromosomes 13-15, 21 and 22 are acrocentric. These translocations are relatively common. In balanced form, they take the place of two acrocentric chromosomes and result in no problems. But in unbalanced form, whole-arm translocations account for some cases of the trisomy 13 (Patau) syndrome and trisomy 21 (Down) syndrome. This type of chromosome rearrangement is named for W.R.B. Robertson who first described it (in grasshoppers) in 1916.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Translocation, Robertsonian — A relatively very common and medically significant type of chromosome rearrangement that is formed by fusion of the whole long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes (chromosomes with the centromere near the very end). One in about 900 babies is… …   Medical dictionary

  • Robertsonian translocation — is a common form of chromosomal rearrangement that occurs in the five acrocentric human chromosome pairs, namely 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22. They are named after the American insect geneticist W. R. B. Robertson, who first described a Robertsonian… …   Wikipedia

  • Robertsonian translocation — A common and significant type of chromosome rearrangement that is formed by fusion of the whole long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes (chromosomes with the centromere near the very end). One in about 900 babies is born with a Robertsonian… …   Medical dictionary

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  • Genetic origins of Down syndrome — Down syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the presence of an extra copy of genetic material on the 21st chromosome, either in whole (trisomy 21) or part (such as due to translocations). The effects of the extra copy varies… …   Wikipedia

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