- Typhoid fever
- An acute illness with fever caused by infection with the Salmonella Typhi bacteria contracted from contaminated water and food. The disease has an insidious onset characterized by fever, headache, constipation, malaise, chills, and myalgia (muscle pain). Diarrhea is uncommon, and vomiting is not usually severe. Confusion, delirium, intestinal perforation, and death may occur in severe cases. Without therapy, the illness may last for 3 to 4 weeks and death rates range between 12% and 30%. The disease is transmitted through contaminated drinking water or food. Large epidemics are most often related to fecal contamination of water supplies or street vended foods. A chronic carrier state — excretion of the organism for more than 1 year — occurs in approximately 5% of cases. Typhoid Mary was a chronic carrier. About 16 million cases of typhoid fever and 600,000 deaths occur yearly worldwide. There are about 400 cases a year in the US, mostly among travelers. For people traveling to high risk areas, vaccines are recommended. One needs to complete the vaccination at least a week before travel so that the vaccine has time to take effect. Typhoid vaccines lose effectiveness after several years; if you were vaccinated in the past, check with your doctor to see if it is time for a booster vaccination. Risk of typhoid is greatest for travelers to the Indian subcontinent and to developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America where there is prolonged exposure to potentially contaminated food and drink. Vaccination is particularly recommended for anyone traveling to smaller cities, villages, and rural areas off the usual tourist itineraries. Typhoid vaccination is not 100% effective and is not a substitute for careful selection of food and drink. Treatment is with antibiotics but taking antibiotics does not prevent typhoid fever There is still 1-2% mortality (risk of death).
* * *typhoid fever n a communicable disease marked by fever, diarrhea, prostration, headache, splenomegaly, eruption of rose-colored spots, leukopenia, and intestinal inflammation and caused by a bacterium of the genus Salmonella (S. typhi)
* * *an infection of the digestive system by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, causing general weakness, high fever, a rash of red spots on the chest and abdomen, chills, sweating, and in serious cases inflammation of the spleen and bones, delirium, and erosion of the intestinal wall leading to haemorrhage. It is transmitted through food or drinking water contaminated by the faeces or urine of patients or carriers. In most cases recovery occurs naturally but treatment with such antibiotics as ciprofloxacin or chloramphenicol reduces the severity of symptoms. Vaccination with TAB vaccine provides temporary immunity. Compare paratyphoid fever.
* * *an acute, generalized, systemic febrile illness caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi; it is usually spread by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Characteristics include sustained bacteremia with invasion and multiplication inside the mononuclear phagocytes of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and ileal Peyer patches; prolonged hectic fever with malaise and later delirium; a characteristic transient skin rash known as rose spots; abdominal pain, splenomegaly, leukopenia, and bradycardia. Intestinal hemorrhages and perforation may be late complications. Called also typhoid.
Medical dictionary. 2011.