Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome
A tic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic vocal and motor tics, probably based on differences in or damage to the basal ganglia of the brain. Tourette syndrome usually emerges between the ages of 6 and 18 and is somewhat more common in people with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), obsessive-compulsive disorder, or an autistic spectrum disorder than in the general population. Tics may be minor and trifling or be major and debilitating. The frequency of the tics, minor and major, typically tends to wax and wane. Infections, particularly those with streptococcus ("strep") can sometimes initiate or exacerbate Tourette syndrome. Emotional distress and stress also appear to influence the frequency of tics. People with this disorder tend to have an impulsive, quick, and frequently humorous disposition. Some, particularly those with co-morbid disorders, experience episodes of rage that are difficult to control. The diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is by clinical observation. There is no laboratory test for the disorder. Treatment with medication may not be recommended unless the tics are self-injurious or embarrassing to the patient or rage is a problem. When treatment is desired, medication choices include the blood-pressure drugs guanfacine (brand name: Tenex) and clonidine (brand name: Catapres), or one of the atypical or older neuroleptics. Some patients have also found the nicotine patch to be useful. Two medicines were reported (in the journal Neurology in 2001) to produce results that are almost mirror images: one drug suppresses individual tics but not the overall level of disability; the other has no effect on frequency of tics but leaves patients feeling less impaired. Botulinum toxin, a chemical that acts to paralyze muscles, drops the tic frequency by about 40% but there is no reduction in the level of the syndrome's overall severity. The other drug, baclofen (brand name: Lioresal), yields no significant reduction in the number of tics but patients appear to be less tense and report feeling better. Therapy can help a patient develop social coping strategies and maintain a positive self-image.

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Gilles de la Tourette s.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Tourette syndrome — Infobox Disease Name = Tourette syndrome Caption = Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1859–1904) ICD10 = F95.2 ICD9 = 307.23 ICDO = MedlinePlus = 000733 eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 3107 eMedicine mult = eMedicine2|neuro|664 DiseasesDB = 5220 …   Wikipedia

  • Tourette syndrome — Rare neurological disease that causes repetitive motor and vocal tics. Named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described it in 1885, it occurs worldwide, is usually inherited, generally begins at ages 2–15, and is three times more… …   Universalium

  • Tourette syndrome — noun A neurological disorder characterized by the presence of physical and vocal tics. Tourette syndrome is a condition characterized by involuntary vocalizations exacerbated by stress. Syn: Tourettes syndrome, Tourettes disorder, Gilles de la… …   Wiktionary

  • Tourette Syndrome Association — The Tourette Syndrome Association (TSA), based in Bayside, New York, United States, is a non profit voluntary organization and the only national health related organization serving people with Tourette syndrome. It was founded in 1972 by five… …   Wikipedia

  • Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada — The Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada (or TSFC) is a Canadian voluntary organization based in Toronto, Ontario. It was formed in 1976, [* Kushner, HI. A cursing brain?: The histories of Tourette syndrome . Harvard University Press, 2000, p.… …   Wikipedia

  • Tourette syndrome —  (pref.), Tourette’s syndrome (alt.). Neurological disorder named for the French physician Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1859–1904) …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Tourette syndrome — noun see Tourette s syndrome …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Tourette syndrome — see Tourette s syndrome …   English dictionary

  • tourette syndrome — noun see tourette s syndrome …   Useful english dictionary

  • Tourette syndrome — /tuˈrɛt sɪndroʊm/ (say tooh ret sindrohm) noun a disorder of the nervous system which manifests itself in involuntary body movements and vocalisations. {named after Georges Giles de la Tourette, 1857–1904, French neurologist} …  

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