- glu·cose 'glü-.kōs, -.kōz n an optically active sugar C6H12O6 that has an aldehydic carbonyl group esp the sweet colorless soluble dextrorotatory form that occurs widely in nature and is the usual form in which carbohydrate is assimilated by animals
* * *(dextrose)n.a simple sugar containing six carbon atoms (a hexose). Glucose is an important source of energy in the body and the sole source of energy for the brain. Free glucose is not found in many foods (grapes are an exception); however, glucose is one of the constituents of both sucrose and starch, both of which yield glucose after digestion. Glucose is stored in the body in the form of glycogen. The concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at around 5 mmol/l by a variety of hormones, principally insulin and glucagon. If the blood-glucose concentration falls below this level neurological and other symptoms may result (see hypoglycaemia). Conversely, if the blood-glucose level is raised above its normal level, to 10 mmol/l, the condition of hyperglycaemia develops. This is a symptom of diabetes mellitus.
* * *glu·cose (glooґkōs) [Gr. gleukos sweetness] 1. an aldohexose, C6H12O6, occurring naturally as the D- form and found as a free monosaccharide in fruits and other plants and in the normal blood of all animals; it also is combined in glucosides and di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilization being controlled by insulin. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed and, beyond that, is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue. See also hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. In pharmaceuticals it is called dextrose. 2. liquid g.
Medical dictionary. 2011.