- diabetes mellitus
- diabetes mel·li·tus -'mel-ət-əs n a variable disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and usu. characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, by excessive urine production, by excessive amounts of sugar in the blood and urine, and by thirst, hunger, and loss of weight see type 1 DIABETES, type 2 DIABETES
* * *a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which sugars in the body are not oxidized to produce energy due to lack of the pancreatic hormone insulin. The accumulation of sugar leads to its appearance in the blood (hyperglycaemia), then in the urine; symptoms include thirst, loss of weight, and the excessive production of urine. The use of fats as an alternative source of energy leads to disturbances of the acid-base balance, the accumulation of ketones in the bloodstream (ketosis), and eventually to diabetic coma. There appears to be an inherited tendency to diabetes; the disorder may be triggered by various factors, including physical stress.Diabetes that starts in childhood or adolescence is usually more severe than that beginning in middle or old age. It is known as type 1 (or insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus as patients have little or no ability to produce the hormone and are entirely dependent on insulin injections for survival. In type 2 (noninsulin-dependent or maturity-onset) diabetes mellitus, which usually occurs after the age of 40 but can develop in young people (see maturity-onset diabetes of the young), the pancreas retains some ability to produce insulin but this is inadequate for the body's needs; alternatively, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin. Patients may require treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drug or insulin. In both types of diabetes the diet must be carefully controlled, with adequate carbohydrate for the body's needs. Lack of balance in the diet or in the amount of insulin taken leads to hypoglycaemia. Long-term complications of diabetes include damage to blood vessels, which can affect the eyes (diabetic retinopathy), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), and nerves (diabetic neuropathy).
* * *(DM) a chronic syndrome of impaired carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism owing to insufficient secretion of insulin or to target tissue insulin resistance. It occurs in two major forms: type 1 d. mellitus and type 2 d. mellitus, which differ in etiology, pathology, genetics, age of onset, and treatment.
Medical dictionary. 2011.