Rift Valley fever

Rift Valley fever
An acute, fever-causing viral disease that affects domestic animals (such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels) and humans that is most commonly associated with mosquito-borne epidemics during years of heavy rainfall. Rift Valley fever is caused by the RVF virus. It is found mainly in regions of eastern and southern Africa where sheep and cattle are raised. RVF primarily affects livestock and can cause disease in a large number of domestic animals (a situation referred to as an "epizootic"). An RVF epizootic can lead to an epidemic among people exposed to animals with RFV. The most notable epizootic of RVF to date occurred in Kenya in 1950-1951 and resulted in the death of an estimated 100,000 sheep. The first epidemic of RVF in West Africa was reported in 1987. Epizootics of RVF tend to occur during years in which there is heavy rainfall and localized flooding. The excessive rain allows mosquito eggs, usually of the genus Aedes, to hatch. The mosquito eggs are infected with the RVF virus, and the resulting mosquitoes transfer the virus to the livestock on which they feed. Once the livestock are infected, other species of mosquitoes can become infected from the animals and spread the disease. People get RVF from the bites of mosquitoes. (In addition, it is possible that the virus can be transmitted by other biting insects.) People can also get the RVF by exposure to the blood or other body fluids of infected animals. This exposure may be in slaughtering or handling of infected animals or by touching contaminated meat during the preparation of food. Infection through aerosol transmission of RVF virus has resulted from contact with laboratory specimens containing the virus. Most people with RVF have no symptoms or only a mild illness associated with fever and liver abnormalities. People with more serious symptoms usually experience fever, weakness, back pain, dizziness, and extreme weight loss at the onset of the illness. Typically, they recover within two days to one week after the onset of illness. But RFV can progress to hemorrhagic fever (bleeding which can lead to shock), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain which can cause headaches, seizures, or coma), and eye disease. About 1% of people infected with RVF die of the disease. A common long-term complication of RVF involves the eye. It is due to inflammation of the retina (at the back of the eye), About 1-10% of affected patients suffer some permanent loss of vision. There is no established treatment for RVF. Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, has shown promise in animal trials. Interferon, immune modulators, and convalescent-phase plasma may possibly help in the treatment of RVF.

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Rift Val·ley fever 'rift-.val-ē- n an acute usu. epizootic mosquito-borne disease of domestic animals (as sheep and cattle) chiefly of eastern and southern Africa that is caused by a bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus (species Rift Valley fever virus), is marked esp. by fever, abortion, death of newborns, diarrhea, and jaundice, and is sometimes transmitted to humans usu. in a milder form marked by flulike symptoms

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an acute febrile infection of sheep and cattle, zoonotic in humans, caused by a bunyavirus; it spreads to humans by the bites of mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles or by contact with tissues and secretions of infected animals. In humans it may be in a mild form with nonspecific influenzalike symptoms, or in a severe form with encephalitis, retinitis, or hemorrhagic fever. In other animals it is characterized by fever, listlessness, hepatitis, melena, bloodstained nasal discharge, and abortion in pregnant animals. First observed in the Rift Valley of Kenya, it is now seen throughout southern and eastern Africa as far north as Egypt.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Rift Valley fever — DiseaseDisorder infobox Name = Rift Valley fever | Caption = TEM micrograph of tissue infected with Rift Valley fever virus ICD10 = ICD10|A|92|4|a|90 ICD9 = ICD9|066.3 Taxobox name = Rift Valley Fever virus virus group = v familia = Bunyaviridae… …   Wikipedia

  • Rift Valley fever — noun an infection common in Africa caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by mosquitoes or by handling infected animals • Hypernyms: ↑hemorrhagic fever, ↑haemorrhagic fever, ↑viral hemorrhagic fever, ↑viral haemorrhagic fever, ↑VHF * * *… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Rift Valley fever — noun Etymology: (Great) Rift Valley, Africa Date: circa 1931 an acute usually epizootic mosquito borne disease of domestic animals chiefly of eastern and southern Africa that is caused by a single stranded RNA virus (species Rift valley fever… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Rift Valley fever — /rift/, Pathol. a highly infectious viral disease of humans and animals, transmitted by mosquitoes and other insects, occurring in Africa and characterized in humans by headache, fever, eye discomfort, and muscle aches, progressing in some cases… …   Universalium

  • Rift Valley fever virus — a virus of the genus Phlebovirus, which causes Rift Valley fever in domestic animals and humans, first seen in the Rift Valley of Kenya, but now widespread in southern and eastern Africa to Egypt; transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes,… …   Medical dictionary

  • Rift Valley fever — noun A mosquito borne, acute, febrile, viral disease of humans and animals, caused by an RNA virus of the genus Phlebovirus, which occurs in northern and eastern Africa …   Wiktionary

  • Rift Valley fever — a virus disease of East Africa transmitted from animals to humans by mosquitoes and causing symptoms resembling those of influenza …   Medical dictionary

  • Rift Valley fever — a virus disease of East Africa transmitted from animals to humans by mosquitoes and causing symptoms resembling those of influenza …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Rift-Valley-Fieber — Verbreitung des Rifttalfiebers (blau: Endemiegebiete, grün: sporadisches Auftreten). Rifttalfieber Viren im …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fiebre de Rift Valley — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Distribución de la Fiebre de Rift Valley en África. En azul aparecen los países con incidencia endémica de la enfermedad y brotes sustanciales de RVF; en verde, los países en los que se conocen algunos casos de… …   Wikipedia Español

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