- : An artificial substitute or replacement of a part of the body such as a tooth, eye, a facial bone, the palate, a hip, a knee or another joint, the leg, an arm, etc. A prosthesis is designed for functional or cosmetic reasons or both. A prosthesis may be removable, as in the case of most prosthetic legs or a prosthetic breast form used after mastectomy. A person who uses a removable prosthesis -— for example, an artificial hand -— may want to have more than one available for different types of tasks. Other types of prosthetic devices are permanently implanted, like an artificial hip, testicle or tooth. With advances in the biomedical sciences, a few experimental prostheses have been integrated with body tissues, including the nervous system. These highly advanced devices can respond to commands from the central nervous system, more closely approximating normal movement and utility. An auditory prosthesis is a device that substitutes for or enhances the ability to hear. It is more commonly called a hearing aide. The word "prosthesis" comes via New Latin from the Greek "prostithenai" meaning "to add to, or to put in addition." The plural of prosthesis is prostheses.
* * *- auditory p. generic term for implantable devices to restore sound perception to the deaf, the most common of which is the cochlear implant; a brainstem implant to stimulate the neurons of the cochlear nucleus is under development.- dental p. an artificial replacement of one or more teeth and/or associated structures. SEE ALSO: denture.- heart valve p. replacement of a cardiac valve removed for disease by either a mechanical or a biologically derived artificial valve.- mandibular guide p. a p. with an extension designed to direct a resected mandible into a functional relation with the maxilla.- surgical p. an appliance prepared as an aid or as a part of a surgical procedure, such as a heart valve, cranial plate, or artificial joint replacement.- tilting disk valve p. a low-profile artificial heart valve employing a caged disk that tilts to open during systole.
* * *pros·the·sis präs-'thē-səs, 'präs-thə- n, pl -the·ses -.sēz an artificial device to replace or augment a missing or impaired part of the body <a dental \prosthesis> <silicone breast and limb prostheses>
* * *n. (pl. prostheses)any artificial device that is attached to the body as an aid. Prostheses include bridges, dentures, artificial parts of the face, artificial limbs, hearing aids and cochlear implants, implanted pacemakers, and many other substitutes for parts of the body that are missing or nonfunctional. Penile prostheses are malleable, semirigid, or inflatable rods inserted into the corpora cavernosa of the penis to produce rigidity sufficient for vaginal penetration in men with impotence.• prosthetic adj.
* * *pros·the·sis (pros-theґsis) pl. prostheґses [Gr. â€œa putting toâ€] an artificial substitute for a missing body part, such as an upper limb, lower limb, eye, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.
Medical dictionary. 2011.