- A class of viruses transmitted to humans by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. The first two letters of the words arthropod' and borne, make up the 'arbo' that now designates this group of viruses as arthropod-borne. The arboviruses were originally called 'arborviruses' but the spelling was changed, dropping the second 'r' because of the potential of mis-identification with trees. For information about the arboviruses, see Arboviral encephalitis.
* * *An old name for a large, heterogeneous group of RNA viruses. There are over 500 species, which are distributed among several families (Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Arenaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Reoviridae), and which have been recovered from arthropods, bats, and rodents; most, but not all, are arthropod-borne. These taxonomically diverse animal viruses are unified by an epidemiologic concept, i.e., transmission between vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding (hematophagous) arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges.. Although about 100 species can infect humans, in most instances diseases produced by these viruses are of a very mild nature and difficult to distinguish from illnesses caused by viruses of other taxonomic groups. Apparent infections may be separated into several clinical syndromes: undifferentiated type fevers (systemic febrile disease), hepatitis, hemorrhagic fevers, and encephalitides. [ar, arthropod, + bo, borne, + virus]
* * *ar·bo·vi·rus -'vī-rəs n any of various RNA viruses (as an arenavirus, bunyavirus, or flavivirus) transmitted principally by arthropods and including the causative agents of encephalitis, yellow fever, and denguear·bo·vi·ral -rəl adj
* * *n.one of a group of RNA-containing viruses that are transmitted from animals to humans by insects (i.e. arthropods; hence arthropod-borne viruses) and cause diseases resulting in encephalitis or serious fever, such as dengue and yellow fever.
* * *ar·bo·vi·rus (ahrґbo-vi″rəs) [from arthropod-borne + virus] any member of an epidemiologic class of viruses (the arboviruses) that replicate in blood-feeding arthropods and are transmitted by bite to the host. Arboviruses can be grouped serologically; the original groups were designated A, B, and C, but new groups are named from the first member of the group to be discovered. Arboviruses are contained in the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Togaviridae; a few are unclassified. â€œArbovirusâ€ has no relationship to viral chemistry, morphology, or replication and so has no standing as a legitimate taxonomic term. arboviral adj
Medical dictionary. 2011.