Phosphorylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of phosphate to an organic compound. Phosphorylation may, for instance, involve the addition of phosphate to glucose to produce glucose monophosphate. Or phosphorylation may, for example, involve the addition of phosphate to ADP [adenosine diphosphate] to form ATP [adenosine triphosphate]. Phosphorylation is carried out through the action of enzymes known as phosphotransferases or kinases.
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Addition of phosphate to an organic compound, such as glucose to produce glucose monophosphate, through the action of a phosphotransferase (phosphorylase) or kinase.
- oxidative p. formation of high-energy phosphoric bonds ( e.g., in pyrophosphates) from the energy released by the flow of electrons to O2 and the dehydrogenation (i.e., oxidation) of various substrates, most notably isocitric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
- substrate-level p. the synthesis of ATP (or other NTP) not involving electron transport coupled with oxidative p. or with photophosphorylation.

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phos·phor·y·la·tion .fäs-.fȯr-ə-'lā-shən n the process of phosphorylating a chemical compound either by reaction with inorganic phosphate or by transfer of phosphate from another organic phosphate esp the enzymatic conversion of carbohydrates into their phosphoric esters in metabolic processes (as the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by ATP and hexokinase)

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phos·phor·y·la·tion (fos-for″ə-laґshən) the metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule. phosphorylated adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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