Inflammation of the peritoneum (The peritoneum is the tissue layer of cells lining the inner wall of the abdomen and pelvis). Peritonitis can result from infection (such as bacteria or parasites), injury and bleeding, or diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus).
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- adhesive p. a form of p. in which a fibrinous exudate occurs, matting together the intestines and various other organs.
- benign paroxysmal p. SYN: familial paroxysmal polyserositis.
- bile p. inflammation of the peritoneum caused by the escape of bile into the free peritoneal cavity. SYN: choleperitonitis.
- chemical p. p. due to the escape of bile, contents of the gastrointestinal tract, or pancreatic juice into the peritoneal cavity; the contents of the fluid causes chemical injury, shock, and peritoneal exudation prior to occurrence of any associated infection.
- chyle p. p. due to free chyle in the peritoneal cavity.
- circumscribed p. SYN: localized p..
- p. deformans a chronic p. in which thickening of the membrane and contracting adhesions cause shortening of the mesentery and kinking and retraction of the intestines.
- diaphragmatic p. p. affecting mainly the peritoneal surface of the diaphragm.
- diffuse p. SYN: general p..
- p. encapsulans a localized fibrous or adhesive p. remaining after a generalized p. has nearly disappeared; it is marked by pain, constipation, and a palpable tumor.
- fibrocaseous p. p. characterized by caseation and fibrosis, usually caused by the tubercle bacillus.
- gas p. inflammation of the peritoneum accompanied by an intraperitoneal accumulation of gas.
- general p. p. throughout the peritoneal cavity. SYN: diffuse p..
- localized p. p. confined to a demarcated region of the peritoneal cavity. SYN: circumscribed p..
- meconium p. p. caused by intestinal perforation in the fetus or newborn; associated with congenital obstruction or due to cystic fibrosis.
- periodic p. SYN: familial paroxysmal polyserositis.
- tuberculous p. p. caused by the tubercle bacillus.

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peri·to·ni·tis .per-ət-ən-'īt-əs n inflammation of the peritoneum

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inflammation of the peritoneum. Primary peritonitis is caused by bacteria spread via the bloodstream: examples are pneumococcal peritonitis and tuberculous peritonitis. Symptoms are diffuse abdominal pain and swelling, with fever and weight loss. Fluid may accumulate in the peritoneal cavity (see ascites) or the infection may complicate existing ascites. Secondary peritonitis is due to perforation or rupture of an abdominal organ (for example, a duodenal ulcer or the vermiform appendix), allowing access of bacteria and irritant digestive juices to the peritoneum. This produces sudden severe abdominal pain, first at the site of rupture but becoming generalized. Shock develops, and the abdominal wall becomes rigid; X-ray examination may reveal gas within the peritoneal cavity. Treatment is usually by surgical repair of the perforation, but in some cases conservative treatment using antibiotics and intravenous fluid may be used. subphrenic abscess is a possible complication. Meconium peritonitis occurs in newborn infants as a result of a perforated intestine; it is initially a sterile contamination of the peritoneum.

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peri·to·ni·tis (per″ĭ-to-niґtis) inflammation of the peritoneum, with exudations of serum, fibrin, cells, and pus, usually accompanied by abdominal pain and tenderness, constipation, vomiting, and moderate fever.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Peritonitis — Per i*to*ni tis, n. [NL. See {Peritoneum}, and { itis}.] (Med.) Inflammation of the peritoneum. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Peritonītis — (griech.), s. Bauchfellentzündung …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • peritonitis — 1776, from Mod.L., from Gk. peritonos, from peritonaion (see PERITONEUM (Cf. peritoneum)) + ITIS (Cf. itis) …   Etymology dictionary

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