- Originally, the live v. (vaccinia, cowpox) virus inoculated in the skin as prophylaxis against smallpox and obtained from the skin of calves inoculated with seed virus. Usage has extended the meaning to include essentially any preparation intended for active immunologic prophylaxis; e.g., preparations of killed microbes of virulent strains or living microbes of attenuated (variant or mutant) strains; or microbial, fungal, plant, protozoal, or metazoan derivatives or products. Method of administration varies according to the v., inoculation being the most common, but ingestion is preferred in some instances and nasal spray is used occasionally. SYN: vaccinum. [L. vaccinus, relating to a cow]- adjuvant v. a v. that contains an adjuvant; the antigen (immunogen) is included in a water-in-oil emulsion (Freund incomplete type adjuvant), or is adsorbed onto an inorganic gel (alum, aluminum hydroxide or phosphate) or mixed with another material to prevent rapid elimination by the host.- aqueous v. a v. having a liquid vehicle ( e.g., physiologic salt solution) as distinguished from an emulsion.- attenuated v. live pathogens that have lost their virulence but are still capable of inducing a protective immune response to the virulent forms of the pathogen, e.g., Sabin polio v..- autogenous v. a v. made from a the patient's own microorganisms.- bacillus Calmette-Guérin v. SYN: BCG v..- BCG v. a suspension of an attenuated strain (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bovine type, which is inoculated into the skin for tuberculosis prophylaxis. SYN: bacillus Calmette-Guérin v., Calmette-Guérin v., tuberculosis v..- brucella strain 19 v. a live bacterial v. prepared from an attenuated variant strain of Brucella abortus (strain 19); used for vaccinating cattle against brucellosis.- Calmette-Guérin v. SYN: BCG v..- cholera v. an inactivated suspension of Inaba and Ogawa strains of Vibrio cholerae grown either on agar or in broth and preserved with phenol.- crystal violet v. hog cholera vaccines.- diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis v. (DTP) a v. available in three forms: 1) diphtheria and tetanus toxoids plus pertussis v. (DTP); 2) tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, adult type (Td); and 3) tetanus toxoid (T); used for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.- foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines vaccines either of inactivated virus from infected cattle tongue epithelium or, more recently, of live virus attenuated by embryonated egg or mouse passage and propagated in tissue culture.- Haemophilus influenzae type B v. a conjugate of oligosaccharides of the capsular antigen of H. influenzae type B and diphtheria CRM protein. SYN: Hib v..- Haffkine v. 1. a killed culture of Vibrio cholerae in two strengths, a weaker one for the initial inoculation and a stronger one for the second inoculation 7–10 days after the first; 2. a killed plague bacillus (Yersinia pestis) v..- hepatitis B v. originally a formalin-inactivated v. prepared from the surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus; the antigen was formerly obtained from the plasma of human carriers of the virus; today in the U.S., purified HBsAg is now primarily prepared by recombinant DNA technology and is used almost exclusively for immunization.- heterogenous v. v. that is not autogenous, may be prepared from other species of bacterium.- Hib v. SYN: Haemophilus influenzae type B v..- hog cholera vaccines vaccines either of virus from blood of infected swine, inactivated with crystal violet, or live virus attenuated in rabbits or tissue culture and frequently used in conjunction with hog cholera virus antiserum.- human diploid cell v. (HDCV) an iodinated virus v. used for protection against rabies v. usually prepared in the human diploid cell WI-38. SYN: human diploid cell rabies v..- inactivated poliovirus v. (IPV) poliovirus vaccines (2).- influenza virus vaccines influenza virus grown in embryonated eggs and inactivated, usually by the addition of formalin; both whole virus and subunit preparations containing hemagglutinins and neuraminidase are used; because of the marked and progressive antigenic variation of the influenza viruses, the strains included are regularly changed following various outbreaks of influenza in order to include most recently isolated epidemic strains of both type A influenza and type B influenza.- live v. v. prepared from living, attenuated organisms.- live oral poliovirus v. poliovirus vaccines (2).- measles, mumps, and rubella v. (MMR) a combination of live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in an aqueous suspension; used for immunization against the respective diseases.- measles virus v. v. containing live, attenuated strains of measles virus prepared in chick embryo cell culture. See measles, mumps, and rubella v..- multivalent v. SYN: polyvalent v..- mumps virus v. v. containing live, attenuated mumps virus prepared in chick embryo cell cultures. See measles, mumps, and rubella v..- oil v. adjuvant v..- oral poliovirus v. (OPV) poliovirus vaccines (2).- plague v. v. (licensed for use in the U.S.) prepared from cultures of Yersinia pestis, inactivated with formaldehyde, and preserved with 0.5% phenol; injections are made intramuscularly, and booster inoculations are recommended every 6–12 months while individuals remain in an area of risk; live, attenuated bacterial and chemical fraction vaccines are also available.- pneumococcal v. v. comprised of purified capsular polysaccharide antigen from 23 types of Streptococcus pneumoniae (representing those types responsible for most of the reported pneumococcal diseases in the U.S.); some types have been conjugated with protein to make them antigenic for children under 2 years.- poliomyelitis vaccines SYN: poliovirus vaccines.- poliovirus vaccines 1. inactivated poliovirus v. (IPV), an aqueous suspension of inactivated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) used by injection; has largely been replaced by the oral v.; See Salk v.. 2. oral poliovirus v. (OPV), an aqueous suspension of live, attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) given orally for active immunization against poliomyelitis. See Sabin v.. SYN: poliomyelitis vaccines.- polysaccharide conjugated v. a v. made from the capsular polysaccharide of the microorganism conjugated with a protein such as the Haemophilus influenzae type B v. against meningitis.- polyvalent v. a v. prepared from cultures of two or more strains of the same species or microorganism. SYN: multivalent v..- rabies v. a v. introduced by Pasteur as a method of treatment for the bite of a rabid animal : daily (14–21) injections of virus that increased serially from noninfective to fully infective “fixed” virus were given to render the central nervous system refractory to infection by virulent virus; this v., with but slight modification ( e.g., Semple v.), was used for many years but had the serious defect that the large quantity of heterologous nervous tissue inoculated along with the virus occasionally gave rise to an allergic (immunologic) demyelinization. It was replaced, in the case of humans, by rabies v. of duck embryo origin (DEV), prepared from embryonated duck eggs infected with “fixed” virus and inactivated with β-propiolactone. At the present time DEV has been replaced by either human diploid cell v. (HDCV), which is grown in WI-38 cells or rabies v. adsorbed (RVA), which is grown in fetal Rhesus monkey cells. They both are inactivated and have a low incidence of adverse reactions and require fewer injections.- rabies v., Flury strain egg-passage 1. high-egg-passage (HEP) v.: living Flury strain rabies virus at the 180th to 190th level egg passage (embryonate eggs), used for vaccination of cattle and cats; 2. low-egg-passage (LEP) v.: at the 40th to 50th passage level, containing 103–104 mouse LD50; nonpathogenic in dogs but retains some pathogenicity for cattle and cats.- rickettsia v., attenuated typhus v..- Rocky Mountain spotted fever v. suspension of inactivated Rickettsia rickettsii prepared by growing the rickettsiae in the embryonate yolk sac of fowl eggs.- rubella virus v., live a live virus v. originally prepared from duck embryos (HPV77) but now prepared from human diploid cell cultures infected with rubella virus (RA27/3); administered as a single subcutaneous injection. See measles, mumps, and rubella v..- Sabin v. an orally administered v. containing live, attenuated strains of poliovirus. See poliovirus vaccines.- Salk v. the original poliovirus v., composed of virus propagated in monkey kidney tissue culture and inactivated. See poliovirus vaccines.- Semple v. a modification of the original (Pasteur) rabies v., formerly widely used in the U.S., prepared from rabbit nerve tissue, inactivated with phenol and administered in 14–21 daily injections; has variable potency and is associated with a high incidence of postvaccinal demyelination.- smallpox v. v. of live vaccinia virus suspensions prepared from cutaneous vaccinial lesions of calves (calf lymph) or chick embryo origin; not currently used because of the worldwide elimination of smallpox.- staphylococcus v. a suspension of organisms from cultures of one or more strains of Staphylococcus; used for furunculosis, acne, and other suppurative conditions.- stock v. a v. made from a stock microbial strain, in contradistinction to an autogenous v..- subunit v. a v. which, through chemical extraction, is free of viral nucleic acid and contains only specific protein subunits of a given virus; such vaccines are relatively free of the adverse reactions ( e.g., influenza virus) associated with vaccines containing the whole virion.- T.A.B. v. SYN: typhoid-paratyphoid A and B v..- tuberculosis v. SYN: BCG v..- typhoid v. a suspension of Salmonella typhi inactivated either by heat or by chemical (acetone) with an added preservative; in the U.S., the combined typhoid and paratyphoid A and B vaccines have been largely replaced by the monovalent typhoid v. because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness of paratyphoid A and paratyphoid B ingredients.- typhoid-paratyphoid A and B v. a suspension of killed typhoid and paratyphoid A and B bacilli. SEE ALSO: typhoid v.. SYN: T.A.B. v..- typhus v. a formaldehyde-inactivated suspension of Rickettsia prowazekii grown in embryonated eggs; effective against louse-borne (epidemic) typhus; primary immunization consists of two subcutaneous injections 4 or more weeks apart; booster doses are required every 6–12 months, as long as the possibility of exposure exists. A v. containing living rickettsiae of an attenuated strain of R. prowazekii has also been used.- yellow fever v. 1. a living, attenuated strain (17D) of yellow fever virus propagated in embryonated fowl eggs; 2. a suspension of dried mouse brain infected with French neurotropic (Dakar) strain of yellow fever virus, administered topically by the scratch method; not officially recommended in the United States because of meningoencephalitic reactions.
* * *vac·cine vak-'sēn, 'vak-. n1) matter or a preparation containing the virus of cowpox used to vaccinate a person against smallpox2) a preparation of killed microorganisms, living attenuated organisms, or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a particular disease <chicken pox \vaccine> also a mixture of several such vaccines <measles-mumps-rubella \vaccine>
* * *n.a special preparation of antigenic material that can be used to stimulate the development of antibodies and thus confer active immunity against a specific disease or number of diseases. Many vaccines are produced by culturing bacteria or viruses under conditions that lead to a loss of their virulence but not of their antigenic nature. Other vaccines consist of specially treated toxins (toxoid) or of dead bacteria that are still antigenic. Examples of live but attenuated (weakened) organisms in vaccines are those against tuberculosis, rabies, and smallpox. Dead organisms are used against cholera and typhoid; precipitated toxoids are used against diphtheria and tetanus. See immunization.
* * *vac·cine (vak-sēnґ) [L. vaccinus pertaining to cows, from vacca cow (from the use of cowpox virus inoculation for immunization against smallpox)] a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, or rickettsiae), or of antigenic proteins derived from them, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious diseases.
Medical dictionary. 2011.