- One of the sugars, q.v., pharmaceutical forms are compressible s. and confectioner's s.. SEE ALSO: sugars. [G. sakcharon; L. saccharum]- amino sugars sugars in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced with an amino group; e.g., d-glucosamine.- beechwood s. d-xylose. See xylose.- beet s. d-sucrose. See sucrose.- cane s. d-sucrose. See sucrose.- deoxy s. a s. containing fewer oxygen atoms than carbon atoms and in which, consequently, one or more carbons in the molecule lack an attached hydroxyl group. SYN: desoxy s..- desoxy s. SYN: deoxy s..- fruit s. d-fructose. See fructose.- grape s. See d-glucose.- invert s. a mixture of equal parts of d-glucose and d-fructose produced by hydrolysis of sucrose (inversion).- maple s. sucrose extracted from the sap of the s. maple, Acer saccharinum. SYN: saccharum canadense.- oil s. SYN: oleosaccharum.- reducing s. a s., such as glucose in the urine, that has the property of reducing various inorganic ions, notably cupric ion to cuprous ion.- wood s. d-xylose. See xylose.
* * *sug·ar 'shu̇g-ər n1) a sweet crystallizable substance that consists chiefly of sucrose, is colorless or white when pure and tending to brown when less refined, is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet and less extensively from sorghum, maples, and palms, and is important as a source of dietary carbohydrate and as a sweetener and preservative for other foods and for drugs and in the chemical industry as an intermediate2) any of various water-soluble compounds that vary widely in sweetness and comprise the oligosaccharides including sucrose
* * *n.any carbohydrate that dissolves in water, is usually crystalline, and has a sweet taste. Sugars are classified chemically as monosaccharide or disaccharide. Table sugar is virtually 100% pure sucrose and contains no other nutrient; brown sugar is less highly refined sucrose. Sugar is used as both a sweetening and preserving agent. See also fructose, glucose, lactose.
* * *sug·ar (shoogґər) any of a class of sweet, water-soluble, crystallizable carbohydrates, which are the monosaccharides and smaller oligosaccharides; often used specifically for sucrose. In animals, they are the chief source of energy and their derivatives are universal constituents of structural materials (e.g., glycosaminoglycans, cellulose).
Medical dictionary. 2011.