A metallic element, atomic no. 11, atomic wt. 22.989768; an alkali metal oxidizing readily in air or water; its salts are found in natural biologic systems and are extensively used in medicine and industry. The s. ion is the most plentiful extracellular ion in the body. For organic s. salts not listed below, see under the name of the organic acid portion. SYN: natrium. [Mod. L. fr. soda]
- s. acid citrate SYN: s. citrate.
- s. acid phosphate SYN: s. biphosphate.
- s. alginate SYN: algin.
- s. p-aminohippurate used intravenously in renal function tests, to determine the renal plasma flow and the tubular excretion.
- s. p-aminophenylarsonate a compound that was one of the first modern pentavalent arsenicals. SYN: s. arsanilate.
- s. aminosalicylate used for the same purposes as aminosalicylic acid.
- s. antimonylgluconate SYN: stibogluconate s. (2).
- s. antimonyl tartrate SYN: antimony s. tartrate.
- s. arsanilate SYN: s. p-aminophenylarsonate.
- s. ascorbate same actions and uses as ascorbic acid; it is preferred for intramuscular administration.
- s. aurothiomalate SYN: gold s. thiomalate.
- s. aurothiosulfate SYN: gold s. thiosulfate.
- s. benzoate used in chronic and acute rheumatism, as a liver function test, and as a preservative.
- s. bicarbonate NaHCO3; used as a gastric and systemic antacid, to alkalize urine, and for washes of body cavities. SYN: baking soda, s. acid carbonate, s. hydrogen carbonate.
- s. biphosphate used to increase urinary acidity. SYN: primary s. phosphate, s. acid phosphate, s. dihydrogen phosphate.
- s. bisulfite NaHSO3; acid s. sulfite, used in gastric and intestinal fermentation, externally in the treatment of parasitic diseases, and as an antioxidant in certain injections (s. metabisulfite). SYN: s. hydrogen sulfite, s. pyrosulfite.
- s. borate used in lotions, gargles, mouthwashes, and as a detergent. SYN: borax, s. pyroborate, s. tetraborate.
- s. bromide NaBr; an obsolete hypnotic and sedative; occasionally used in epilepsy and other functional disorders of the nervous system.
- s. cacodylate used in anemia, leukemia, and malaria. SYN: s. dimethylarsenate.
- s. carbonate used in the treatment of scaly skin diseases; otherwise rarely used in medicine because of its irritant action. SYN: sal soda, soda, washing soda.
- s. carboxymethyl cellulose the s. salt of a polycarboxymethyl ether of cellulose; used as a laxative due to its indigestibility and binding of water within the gastrointestinal tract.
- s. chloride NaCl; the chief component of blood and other body fluids, and urine; used to make isotonic and physiological saline solutions, in the treatment of salt depletion, and topically for inflammatory lesions. SYN: common salt, table salt.
- s. citrate, acid same actions and uses as s. citrate; in addition, it may be used in solutions of glucose without producing caramelization of the latter during autoclaving.
- s. cromoglycate SYN: cromolyn s..
- s. dehydrocholate a cholagogue; also used to determine circulation time.
- s. diatrizoate a water-soluble organic iodine compound formerly used for intravenous excretory urography and angiography.
- s. dihydrogen phosphate SYN: s. biphosphate.
- s. dimethylarsenate SYN: s. cacodylate.
- s. dodecyl sulfate (SDS) SYN: s. lauryl sulfate.
- effervescent s. phosphate exsiccated s. phosphate 200, s. bicarbonate 477, tartaric acid 252, and citric acid 162, mixed and passed through a sieve to make a granular salt.
- exsiccated s. sulfite anhydrous s. sulfite, used as a preservative in pharmaceutical preparations.
- s. fluoride used as a dental prophylactic against caries in drinking water, and topically as a 2% solution applied on the teeth.
- s. fluosilicate SYN: s. hexafluorosilicate.
- s. folate the s. salt of folic acid; action and uses are the same as those of folic acid, but it is preferred for parenteral administration. SYN: s. pteroylglutamate.
- s. fusidate SYN: fusidate s..
- s. glycerophosphate has been used as a tonic.
- s. hexafluorosilicate Na2SiF6; used (in dilute solutions) as an antiseptic and deodorant, and for fluoridation of drinking water. SYN: s. fluosilicate, s. silicofluoride.
- s. hydroxide NaOH; used externally as a caustic. SYN: caustic soda.
- s. hypochlorite strong oxidizer; explosive when anhydrous. Decomposes by absorbing carbon dioxide from the air. Liberates chlorine and oxygen; used in aqueous solution as a bleach and disinfectant. The active constituent of many household bleaches, e.g., Clorox.
- s. hypophosphite formerly used as a nerve tonic.
- s. hyposulfite SYN: s. thiosulfate.
- s. ichthyolsulfonate an alterative and antiseptic.
- s. indigotin disulfonate SYN: indigo carmine.
- s. iodide NaI; used as a source of iodine.
- s. lauryl sulfate a surface-active agent of the anionic type used in toothpastes. SYN: s. dodecyl sulfate.
- s. levothyroxine S. salt of the natural isomer of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone. It is twice as effective as the racemic form. Used in the treatment of hypothyroidism in humans and animals, to treat lowered fertility in bulls, and to stimulate lactation in animals.
- s. liothyronine s. l-triiodothyronine, the physiologically active isomer of triiodothyronine, twice as active as the racemic form; used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency syndromes. A metabolite of thyroxine.
- s. metabisulfite used as an antioxidant in injectable solutions.
- s. methicillin SYN: methicillin s..
- s. methylarsonate formerly used in tuberculosis, chorea, and other affections in which the cacodylates were used.
- s. nitrate NaNO3; formerly used for dysentery and as a diuretic. SYN: Chilean saltpeter, cubic niter.
- s. nitrite NaNO2; used to lower systemic blood pressure, to relieve local vasomotor spasms, especially in angina pectoris and Raynaud disease, to relax bronchial and intestinal spasms, and as an antidote for cyanide poisoning.
- s. nitroferricyanide SYN: s. nitroprusside.
- s. nitroprusside a rapidly acting and potent arterial and venous vasodilator used in hypertensive emergencies and administered intravenously. Acts in a manner similar to vasodilator nitrates and nitrites by donating nitric oxide which produces vasodilation; also used as a reagent for detection of organic compounds in the urine. SYN: s. nitroferricyanide.
- s. perborate used in the extemporaneous preparation of hydrogen peroxide; a 2% solution is equivalent in germicidal action to 0.4% of hydrogen peroxide.
- s. peroxide Na2O2; used externally as a paste or soap in the treatment of comedones and acne.
- s. phosphate 32P anionic radioactive phosphorus in the form of a solution of s. acid phosphate and s. basic phosphate; a beta emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days; after administration, highest concentrations are found in rapidly proliferating tissues; it is used in the treatment of polycythemia vera, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and osseous metastases. SEE ALSO: chromic phosphate 32P colloidal suspension.
- s. polyanhydromannuronic acid sulfate an anticoagulant drug prepared from alginic acid and having an action similar to that of heparin.
- s. polystyrene sulfonate a cationic exchange resin used in hyperpotassemia.
- s. potassium tartrate SYN: potassium s. tartrate.
- pravastatin s. antihyperlipoproteinemic. An HMG-Co reductase inhibitor resembling lovastatin and simvastatin, which inhibits cholesterol formation.
- primary s. phosphate SYN: s. biphosphate.
- s. propionate the s. salt of propionic acid; used for fungus infections of the skin, usually in combination with calcium propionate; used as a preservative.
- s. psylliate the s. salt of the liquid fatty acid s of psyllium oil, prepared by dissolving the fatty acid in dilute s. hydroxide solution; used like morrhuate s. as a sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins.
- s. pteroylglutamate SYN: s. folate.
- s. pyroborate SYN: s. borate.
- s. pyrosulfite SYN: s. bisulfite.
- s. rhodanate SYN: s. thiocyanate.
- s. ricinoleate, s. ricinate the s. salt of ricinoleic acid; a sclerosing agent similar in action to morrhuate s..
- s. silicofluoride SYN: s. hexafluorosilicate.
- s. stearate stearic acid s. salt, used as a pharmaceutical adjuvant in ointments, creams, and suppositories.
- s. sulfate an ingredient of many of the natural laxative waters, and also used as a hydragogue cathartic primarily in large animals. SYN: Glauber salt.
- s. sulfite has been used for the relief of intestinal fermentation, and externally for aphthous stomatitis.
- s. sulforicinate, s. sulforicinoleate made by combining castor oil, sulfuric acid, and s. hydroxide and chloride; used as a solvent for iodine, iodoform, resorcinol, pyrogallol, and a number of other substances for external use.
- s. taurocholate the s. salt of taurocholic acid, extracted from the bile of carnivora; a cholagogue.
- s. tetraborate SYN: s. borate.
- s. tetradecyl sulfate an anionic surface-active agent used for its wetting properties to enhance the surface action of certain antiseptic solutions; also used as a sclerosing agent similar to morrhuate s. in the treatment of varicose veins.
- s. thiocyanate formerly used in the management of essential hypertension. SYN: s. rhodanate, s. sulfocyanate.
- s. thiosulfate an antidote in cyanide poisoning in conjunction with s. nitrite; used as a prophylactic agent against ringworm infections in swimming pools and baths, and to measure the extracellular fluid volume of the body. SYN: s. hyposulfite.
- s. tungstoborate used in electron microscopy as a negative stain.

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so·di·um 'sōd-ē-əm n a silver white soft waxy ductile element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature in combined form and is very active chemically symbol Na see ELEMENT (table)

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a mineral element and an important constituent of the human body (average sodium content of the adult body is 4000 mmol). Sodium controls the volume of extracellular fluid in the body and maintains the acid-base balance. It also helps maintain electrical potentials in the nervous system and is thus necessary for the functioning of nerves and muscles. Sodium is contained in most foods and is well absorbed, the average daily intake in the UK being 200 mmol. The amount of sodium in the body is controlled by the kidneys. An excess of sodium leads to the condition of hypernatraemia, which often results in oedema. This may develop in infants fed on bottled milk, which has a much higher sodium content than human milk. Since babies are less able to remove sodium from the body than adults the feeding of a high-sodium diet to babies is dangerous and may lead to dehydration. Sodium is also implicated in hypertension: a high-sodium diet is thought to increase the risk of hypertension in later life. Symbol: Na.

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so·di·um (Na) (soґde-əm) a soft, silver white, alkaline metallic element; atomic number, 11; atomic weight, 22.990; specific gravity, 0.971. With a valence of 1, it has a strong affinity for oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the extracellular body fluids. See also sodium pump, under pump. The salts of sodium are the most widely used salts in medicine. NOTE: For sodium salts not listed below, see the name of the active ingredient.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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