Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina. [retino- + G. pathos, suffering]
- arteriosclerotic r. r. distinguished by attenuated retinal arterioles with increased tortuosity, copper- or silver-wire appearance, perivascular sheathing, irregularity of lumen and scattered small hemorrhages, and small, sharp-edged deposits without surrounding edema.
- central angiospastic r. SYN: central serous choroidopathy.
- central serous r. SYN: central serous choroidopathy.
- circinate r. a retinal degeneration marked by a girdle of sharply defined white exudates around an edematous macula; usually bilateral and typically affects the aged.
- compression r. 1. See Berlin edema. See traumatic r..
- diabetic r. retinal changes occurring in diabetes mellitus, marked by microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages, and sometimes by neovascularization. SYN: fundus diabeticus.Diabetic eye disease is responsible for approximately 25% of all newly reported cases of blindness in the U.S. The principal form is nonproliferative r., which results directly from degenerative changes in retinal capillaries. Features of this disorder, as observed on funduscopic examination, include microaneurysms; soft or cotton-wool exudates, which are actually areas of microinfarction; hard or waxy exudates, which are deposits of lipid and protein from leaking capillaries; and flame hemorrhages. A few patients, principally those with type 1 diabetes, develop a proliferative r. characterized by neovascularization (proliferation of new capillary loops on the retinal surface). Either type of r. can impair vision by destroying retinal tissue directly and by predisposing to retinal edema, retinal detachment, and vitreous hemorrhage. Controlled clinical studies have shown that maintaining blood glucose levels as near as possible to normal at all times in persons with diabetes mellitus substantially retards the onset and rate of progression of r.. Laser photocoagulation is effective in arresting neovascularization in proliferative diabetic r..
- electric r. SYN: photoretinopathy.
- external exudative r. exudative retinitis.
- hypertensive r. a retinal condition occurring in accelerated vascular hypertension, marked by arteriolar constriction, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool patches, star-figure edema at the macula, and papilledema.
- leukemic r. appearance of the retina in all types of leukemia, characterized by engorgement and tortuosity of veins, scattered hemorrhages, and edema of the retina and disk.
- lipemic r. a milkiness of the retinal vessels (lipemia retinalis) combined with hard-edged fatty exudates, seen in patients with diabetic acidosis and hyperlipemia.
- macular r. SYN: maculopathy.
- pigmentary r. SYN: retinitis pigmentosa.
- r. of prematurity abnormal replacement of the sensory retina by fibrous tissue and blood vessel s, occurring mainly in premature infants having a birth weight of less than 1500 g who are placed in a high-oxygen environment. SYN: retinopapillitis of premature infants, retrolental fibroplasia, Terry syndrome.
- proliferative r. neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous humor. SYN: retinitis proliferans.
- r. punctata albescens [MIM*136880] a disease in which both fundi show numerous white dots or flecks through the retinae, causing night blindness; autosomal dominant inheritance, caused by mutation in the “retinal degeneration, slow” gene (RDS) encoding peripherin on chromosome 6p. There is also a recessive form [MIM*210370].
- Purtscher r. transient traumatic retinal angiopathy due to a sudden rise in venous pressure, as in compression of the body from seat belt injury; ocular fundi show large white patches associated with the retinal veins about the disk or macula, hemorrhages, and retinal edema; thought to be due to fat embolism from bone marrow. SYN: Purtscher disease, transient r., traumatic r..
- sickle cell r. a condition marked by dilation and tortuosity of retinal veins and by microaneurysms and retinal hemorrhages; advanced stages may show neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, or retinal detachment.
- solar r. SYN: photoretinopathy.
- toxemic r. of pregnancy sudden angiospasm of retinal arterioles, later followed by retinal vascular signs of advanced hypertensive r.; vascular changes disappear rapidly after termination of the pregnancy.
- toxic r. retinal changes due to prolonged administration of various drugs.
- transient r. SYN: Purtscher r..
- traumatic r. SYN: Purtscher r..
- venous-stasis r. a uniocular r. associated with occlusion of the central retinal vein; a nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion.
- whiplash r. an injury to the retina caused by a sudden acceleration/deceleration injury.

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ret·i·nop·a·thy .ret-ən-'äp-ə-thē n, pl -thies any of various noninflammatory disorders of the retina including some that cause blindness <diabetic \retinopathy>

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any of various disorders of the retina resulting in impairment or loss of vision. It is usually due to damage to the blood vessels of the retina, occurring (for example) as a complication of longstanding diabetes (diabetic retinopathy), high blood pressure, or AIDS (AIDS retinopathy). In diabetic retinopathy, haemorrhaging or exudation may occur, either from damaged vessels into the retina or from new abnormal vessels (see neovascularization) into the vitreous humour. Treatment of the later stages requires laser surgery (see photocoagulation). Diabetic retinopathy can be detected by careful eye examination before it causes a deterioration in vision.

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ret·i·nop·a·thy (ret″ĭ-nopґə-the) [retina + -pathy] 1. retinitis. 2. retinosis.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • retinopathy — noun (plural thies) Date: 1932 any of various noninflammatory disorders of the retina including some that cause blindness …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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