- acute hemorrhagic p. an acute inflammation of the pancreas accompanied by the formation of necrotic areas and hemorrhage into the substance of the gland; clinically marked by sudden severe abdominal pain, nausea, fever, and leukocytosis; areas of fat necrosis are present on the surface of the pancreas and in the omentum because of the action of the escaped pancreatic enzyme (trypsin and lipase).
- calcareous p. chronic p. with appearance of areas of calcification, seen by x-ray. SYN: calcific p..
- calcific p. (kal′sif-ik) SYN: calcareous p..
- chronic p. recurrent bouts of inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by fibrosis and varying degrees of irreversible loss of exocrine and ultimately endocrine function.
- chronic fibrosing p. inflammation of the pancreas consisting of fibrosis, acinar atrophy, and calcification. Clinically, it follows a protracted course with relapses and remissions, and is usually due to alcohol abuse or malnutrition.
- chronic relapsing p. repeated exacerbations of p. in patient with chronic inflammation of that organ. Relapses are usually due to persistence of etiologic factor or repeated exposure to it, such as occurs with partial ductal obstruction or chronic alcoholism.

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pan·cre·ati·tis .paŋ-krē-ə-'tīt-əs, .pan- n, pl -atit·i·des -'tit-ə-.dēz inflammation of the pancreas

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inflammation of the pancreas. Acute pancreatitis is a sudden illness in which the patient experiences severe pain in the upper abdomen and back, with shock; its cause is not always discovered, but it may be associated with gallstones or alcoholism. It may be mistaken for a perforated peptic ulcer but differs from this condition in that the level of the enzyme amylase in the blood is raised. The main complication is the formation of a pseudocyst. Treatment consists of intravenous feeding (no food or drink should be given by mouth), and anticholinergic drugs. Relapsing pancreatitis, in which the above symptoms are recurrent and less severe, may be associated with gallstones or alcoholism; prevention is by removal of gallstones and avoidance of alcohol and fat. Operations may be done to improve drainage of the pancreatic duct. Chronic pancreatitis may produce symptoms similar to relapsing pancreatitis or may be painless; it leads to pancreatic failure causing malabsorption and diabetes mellitus. The pancreas often becomes calcified, producing visible shadowing on X-rays. The malabsorption is treated by a low-fat diet with pancreatic enzyme supplements, and the diabetes with insulin.

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pan·cre·a·ti·tis (pan″kre-ə-tiґtis) inflammation of the pancreas, which may be acute or chronic, asymptomatic or symptomatic, and is often complicated by autodigestion of pancreatic tissue by its own enzymes. The most common causes are complications from alcoholism and biliary tract conditions such as gallstones; less commonly it may be associated with hyperlipemia, hyperparathyroidism, abdominal trauma from an accident or surgery, vasculitis, or uremia.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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