Gum disease with inflammation of the gums. On inspection, the gums will appear red and puffy, and will usually bleed during tooth-brushing or dental examination. Treatment is by improved cleaning, with more-frequent and longer brushing and flossing, and/or the use of electronic tooth-cleaning equipment. Antiseptic mouthwashes may also be recommended. See also acute membranous gingivitis, gum disease.
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Inflammation of the gingiva as a response to bacterial plaque on adjacent teeth; characterized by erythema, edema, and fibrous enlargement of the gingiva without resorption of the underlying alveolar bone. [gingiva + G. -itis, inflammation]
- acute necrotizing ulcerative g. (ANUG) necrotizing ulcerative g..
- atypical g. SYN: plasma cell g..
- chronic desquamative g. a clinical term for a gingival condition of unknown etiology, usually encountered in middle-aged and older women, characterized by erythema, mucosal atrophy, and desquamation, and usually accompanied by a burning sensation and pain; diagnosis is usually made by biopsy and direct immunofluorescence. SYN: gingivosis.
- diabetic g. g. in which the host response to bacterial plaque is presumably modified by the metabolic alterations encountered in the uncontrolled diabetic patient.
- dilantin g. SYN: diphenylhydantoin g..
- diphenylhydantoin g. g. exacerbated by long-term therapy with diphenylhydantoin; the host response to bacterial plaque is characterized by marked hyperplasia of the fibrous connective tissue and, to a lesser degree, of the surface epithelium, resulting in gross enlargement of interdental papillae which may coalesce and obscure the clinical crowns of the teeth. SYN: dilantin g..
- fusospirochetal g. SYN: necrotizing ulcerative g..
- hormonal g. g. in which the host response to bacterial plaque is presumably exacerbated by hormonal alterations occurring during puberty, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, or menopause. SYN: pregnancy g..
- hyperplastic g. g. of long-standing duration in which the gingiva becomes enlarged and firm due to proliferation of fibrous connective tissue.
- leukemic hyperplastic g. enlarged gingiva due to infiltration of leukemic cells and infection from local factors in the face of diminshed host response.
- marginal g. g. in which the clinical alterations are confined to the marginal gingiva and do not involve the attached gingiva.
- necrotizing ulcerative g. (NUG) an acute or recurrent g. of young and middle-aged adults characterized clinically by gingival erythema and pain, fetid odor, and necrosis and sloughing of interdental papillae and marginal gingiva which gives rise to a gray pseudomembrane; fever, regional lymphadenopathy, and other systemic manifestations also may be present. A fusiform bacillus and Treponema vincentii can be isolated from the gingival tissues in large numbers and are felt to play a significant but poorly defined role in the pathogenesis. SYN: fusospirochetal g., trench mouth, ulceromembranous g., Vincent disease, Vincent infection.
- plasma cell g. intense hyperemic edema and inflammation of the gingiva resulting from a hypersensitivity reaction. A dense plasma cell infiltrate is seen in the lamina propria. SYN: atypical g..
- pregnancy g. SYN: hormonal g..
- proliferative g. inflammatory changes in the gingiva characterized by proliferation of the gingival components.
- suppurative g. g. in which a purulent exudate can be expressed from the gingival surface.
- ulceromembranous g. SYN: necrotizing ulcerative g..

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gin·gi·vi·tis .jin-jə-'vīt-əs n inflammation of the gums

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inflammation of the gums (see gingiva) caused by plaque on the surfaces of the teeth at their necks. The gums are swollen and bleed easily. Chronic gingivitis is an early stage of periodontal disease but is reversible with good oral hygiene. ulcerative gingivitis is painful and destructive. Gingival overgrowth may be caused by drug therapy, e.g. phenytoin.

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gin·gi·vi·tis (jin″jĭ-viґtis) [gingiv- + -itis] inflammation of the gingivae; when it is associated with bony changes, the condition is referred to as periodontitis.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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