- The celebrated 2nd century Greek physician Galen ((c. 130-201 A.D.) who lived and worked in Rome first used the word ganglion to denote a nerve complex. Ganglion still is used to refer to an aggregation of nerve cell bodies. Another use of the word ganglion is for a tendon cyst that most commonly pops up near the wrist. To learn more about ganglions of the tendinous type, read the article on Ganglion.
* * *1. [TA] Originally, any group of nerve cell bodies in the central or peripheral nervous system; currently, an aggregation of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. SYN: nerve g., neural g., neuroganglion. 2. A cyst containing mucopolysaccharide-rich fluid within fibrous tissue or, occasionally, muscle bone or a semilunar cartilage; usually attached to a tendon sheath in the hand, wrist, or foot, or connected with the underlying joint. SYN: myxoid cyst, peritendinitis serosa, synovial cyst. [G. a swelling or knot]- aberrant g. a collection of nerve cells sometimes found on a posterior spinal nerve root between the spinal g. and the spinal cord.- acousticofacial g. a primordial ganglionic cell mass in young embryos which later separates into the acoustic or spiral g. of the vestibulocochlear (eighth cranial) nerve and the geniculate g. of the facial (seventh cranial) nerve.- Acrel g. 1. pseudoganglion on the posterior interosseous nerve on the dorsal aspect of the wrist joint; 2. a cyst on a tendon of an extensor muscle at the level of the wrist.- aorticorenal ganglia [TA] a semidetached portion of the celiac ganglia, at the origin of each renal artery; contains the postsynaptic sympathetic neurons innervating the vasculature of the kidney. SYN: ganglia aorticorenalia [TA].- ganglia aorticorenalia [TA] SYN: aorticorenal ganglia.- Auerbach ganglia collections of postsynaptic parasympathetic nerve cells in the myenteric plexus. See myenteric (nervous) plexus.- ganglia of autonomic plexuses autonomic ganglia lying in plexuses of autonomic fibers, e.g., the celiac and inferior mesenteric ganglia of the sympathetic, and the small parasympathetic ganglia of the myenteric plexus. SYN: ganglia plexuum autonomicorum [TA].- basal ganglia originally, all of the large masses of gray matter at the base of the cerebral hemisphere; currently, the striate body (caudate and lentiform nuclei) and cell groups functionally associated with the striate body, such as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. SEE ALSO: basal nuclei, under nucleus.- Bochdalek g. a g. of the plexus of the dental nerve lying in the maxilla just above the root of the canine tooth.- cardiac ganglia [TA] parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus lying between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery and of the plexus extension onto the atria and atrioventricular groove. One such g. is commonly found adjacent to the ligamentum arteriosum; the ganglia send postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers to the nodal tissue and periarterial plexuses of the coronary arteries. SYN: ganglia cardiaca [TA], Wrisberg ganglia.- ganglia cardiaca [TA] SYN: cardiac ganglia.- carotid g. a small ganglionic swelling on filaments from the internal carotid plexus, lying on the undersurface of the carotid artery in the cavernous sinus. SYN: Bock g., Laumonier g..- celiac ganglia [TA] the largest and highest group of prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, located on the superior part of the abdominal aorta, on either side of the origin of the celiac artery; contains postsynaptic sympathetic neurons whose unmyelinated postganglionic axons innervate the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidney, small intestine, and ascending and transverse colon. SYN: ganglia coeliaca [TA], solar ganglia, Vieussens ganglia, Willis centrum nervosum.- cervicothoracic g. [TA] a sympathetic trunk g. lying posterior to the subclavian artery near the origin of the vertebral artery, it is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical g., at the level of the seventh cervical vertebra, with the first thoracic g.. SYN: g. cervicothoracicum [TA], g. stellatum, stellate g..- g. cervicothoracicum [TA] SYN: cervicothoracic g..- g. ciliare [TA] SYN: ciliary g..- ciliary g. [TA] a small parasympathetic g. lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle; it receives presynaptic fibers from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus by way of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and in turn gives rise to postsynaptic fibers that innervate the ciliary muscle and the sphincter of the iris (sphincter pupillae muscle). SYN: g. ciliare [TA], lenticular g., Schacher g..- cochlear g. [TA] an elongated g. of bipolar sensory nerve cell bodies on the cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve in the spiral canal of the modiolus; each g. cell gives rise to a peripheral process that passes between the layers of the bony spiral lamina to the organ of Corti, and a central axon that enters the hindbrain as a component of the inferior (cochlear) root of the eighth nerve, which conveys auditory sensation. SYN: g. cochleare [TA], spiral g. of cochlea [TA], g. spirale cochleae, auditory g., Corti g., spiral cochlear g..- ganglia coeliaca [TA] SYN: celiac ganglia.- craniospinal sensory ganglia [TA] a term collectively designating the sensory ganglia on the dorsal (posterior) roots of spinal nerves and on those cranial nerves that contain general sensory and taste fibers; also called encephalospinal ganglia. SYN: ganglia craniospinalia sensoria [TA].- diffuse g. a cystic swelling due to inflammatory effusion into one or several adjacent tendon sheaths.- Froriep g. a temporary collection of nerve cells on the dorsal aspect of the hypoglossal nerve in the embryo; it represents a rudimentary sensory g..- geniculate g. [TA] a g. of the nervus intermedius fibers conveyed by the facial nerve, located within the facial canal at the genu of the canal and containing the sensory neurons innervating the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and a small area on the external ear. SYN: g. geniculi [TA], g. geniculatum, g. of facial nerve, g. of intermediate nerve, g. of nervus intermedius, intumescentia ganglioformis.- g. geniculatum geniculate g..- g. geniculi [TA] SYN: geniculate g..- g. habenulae SYN: habenular nuclei, under nucleus.- g. impar [TA] the most inferior, unpaired g. of the sympathetic trunk; inconstant. SYN: coccygeal g., Walther g..- inferior cervical g. [TA] inferior-most of the three ganglia of the cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk, occurring at the C7 vertebral level. Most commonly, it is fused to the first thoracic sympathetic g. to form a cervicothoracic (stellate) g.. SYN: g. cervicale inferius [TA].- inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve [TA] the lower, more significant, of two sensory ganglions on the glossopharyngeal nerve immediately inferior to its exit from the jugular foramen. The unipolar neurons comprising the ganglia convey taste and general sensation from the posterior third of the tongue, and general sensation only from the fauces, soft palate, and oropharynx. SYN: g. inferius nervi glossopharyngei [TA], Andersch g., extracranial ganglia, g. extracraniale, petrosal g., petrous g..- inferior mesenteric g. [TA] the lowest of the sympathetic prevertebral ganglia, located at the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery from the aorta and containing the postsynaptic sympathetic neurons innervating the descending and sigmoid colon. SYN: g. mesentericum inferius [TA].- inferior g. of vagus nerve [TA] a large sensory g. of the vagus, anterior to the internal jugular vein. SYN: g. inferius nervi vagi [TA], g. of trunk of vagus, nodose g..- ganglia intermedia [TA] SYN: intermediate ganglia.- intermediate ganglia [TA] small sympathetic ganglia most commonly found on the communicating branches in the cervical and lumbar region. SYN: ganglia intermedia [TA].- g. isthmi SYN: interpeduncular nucleus.- ganglia lumbalia [TA] SYN: lumbar ganglia.- lumbar ganglia [TA] four or more ganglia on the medial border of the psoas major muscle on either side; they form, with the sacral and coccygeal ganglia and their interganglionic branches, the abdominopelvic part of the sympathetic trunk. SYN: ganglia lumbalia [TA].- middle cervical g. [TA] a sympathetic g., of small size and sometimes absent; located at the level of the cricoid cartilage. SYN: g. cervicale medium [TA].- otic g. [TA] an autonomic g. situated inferior to the foramen ovale medial to the mandibular nerve; its postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers are secretomotor fibers distributed to the parotid gland. SYN: g. oticum [TA], Arnold g., auricular g., otoganglion.- g. oticum [TA] SYN: otic g..- parasympathetic ganglia [TA] those ganglia of the autonomic nervous system composed of cholinergic neurons receiving presynaptic fibers from visceral motor neurons in either the brainstem or the middle sacral spinal segments (S2 to S4); on the basis of their location with respect to the organs they innervate, most parasympathetic ganglia, at least outside the head, can be categorized as juxtamural or intramural ganglia ( i.e., located in or on the viscus being innervated). SEE ALSO: autonomic division of nervous system. SYN: ganglia parasympathetica [TA].- ganglia parasympathetica [TA] SYN: parasympathetic ganglia.- pelvic ganglia [TA] the parasympathetic ganglia scattered through the pelvic plexus of either side. SYN: ganglia pelvica [TA], hypogastric ganglia.- ganglia pelvica [TA] SYN: pelvic ganglia.- periosteal g. a flattened subperiosteal cavity containing clear, yellow, viscous, synovial-like fluid.- phrenic ganglia [TA] several small autonomic ganglia contained in the plexuses accompanying the inferior phrenic arteries. SYN: ganglia phrenica [TA].- ganglia phrenica [TA] SYN: phrenic ganglia.- ganglia plexuum autonomicorum [TA] SYN: ganglia of autonomic plexuses.- prevertebral ganglia the sympathetic ganglia (celiac, aorticorenal, superior and inferior mesenteric) lying in front of the vertebral column, as distinguished from the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk (paravertebral ganglia); these ganglia occur mostly around the origin of the major branches of the abdominal aorta; all are in the abdominopelvic cavity; the neurons comprising the ganglia send postsynaptic sympathetic fibers to abdominopelvic viscera via periarterial plexuses.- pterygopalatine g. [TA] a small parasympathetic g. in the upper part of the pterygopalatine fossa whose secretomotor postsynaptic fibers supply the lacrimal, nasal, palatine, and pharyngeal glands. SYN: g. pterygopalatinum [TA], Meckel g., nasal g., sphenopalatine g..- g. pterygopalatinum [TA] SYN: pterygopalatine g..- Remak ganglia 1. groups of nerve cells in the wall of the venous sinus where it joins the right atrium of the heart; 2. autonomic ganglia in nerves of the stomach.- renal ganglia [TA] small scattered sympathetic ganglia along the renal plexus. SYN: ganglia renalia [TA].- ganglia renalia [TA] SYN: renal ganglia.- sacral ganglia [TA] three or four ganglia on either side constituting, with the g. impar and the interganglionic branches, the pelvic part of the sympathetic trunk. SYN: ganglia sacralia [TA].- ganglia sacralia [TA] SYN: sacral ganglia.- sensory g. a cluster of primary sensory neurons forming a usually visible swelling in the course of a peripheral nerve or its dorsal root; such nerve cells establish the sole afferent neural connection between the sensory periphery (skin, mucous membranes of the oral and nasal cavities, muscle tissue, tendons, joint capsules, special sense organs, blood vessel walls, tissues of the internal organs) and the central nervous system; they are the cells of origin of all sensory fibers of the peripheral nervous system.- solar ganglia SYN: celiac ganglia.- spinal g. [TA] the g. of the posterior (dorsal) root of each spinal segmental nerve (commonly with the exception of the first cervical spinal nerve); contains the cell bodies of the pseudounipolar primary sensory neurons whose peripheral axonal branches become part of the mixed segmental nerve, while the central axonal branches enter the spinal cord as a component of the sensory posterior root. SYN: g. sensorium nervi spinalis [TA], dorsal root g., g. spinale, intervertebral g..- g. spinale SYN: spinal g..- g. spirale cochleae cochlear g..- g. stellatum cervicothoracic g..- sublingual g. [TA] a tiny parasympathetic g. occasionally found anterior to the submandibular g., of which it is a displaced portion; its postsynaptic fibers are secretomotor to the sublingual gland. SYN: g. sublinguale [TA].- g. sublinguale [TA] SYN: sublingual g..- submandibular g. [TA] a small parasympathetic g. suspended from the lingual nerve; its postsynaptic fibers are secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands; its presynaptic fibers come from the superior salvatory nucleus by way of the chorda tympani. SYN: g. submandibulare [TA], submaxillary g..- g. submandibulare [TA] SYN: submandibular g..- superior cervical g. [TA] the superior-most and largest of the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, lying near the base of the skull between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein. All postsynaptic sympathetic fibers distributed to the head and upper neck are derived from the cell bodies that constitute this g.. SYN: g. cervicale superius [TA].- superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve [TA] the upper, smaller, and less significant of two ganglia on the glossopharyngeal nerve as it traverses the jugular foramen; it is usually regarded as a detached part of the inferior g.. SYN: g. superius nervi glossopharyngei [TA], Ehrenritter g., intracranial g., jugular g. (1).- superior mesenteric g. [TA] an often paired sympathetic g. located at the origin of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. The neurons comprising the g. send postsynaptic fibers to the portions of the small and large intestines supplied by the superior mesenteric artery. SYN: g. mesentericum superius [TA].- superior g. of vagus nerve [TA] a small sensory g. on the vagus as it traverses the jugular foramen. SYN: g. superius nervi vagi [TA], jugular g. (2).- sympathetic ganglia those ganglia of the autonomic nervous system that receive efferent fibers originating from preganglionic visceral motor neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of thoracic and upper lumbar spinal segments (T1–L2). On the basis of their location, the sympathetic ganglia can be classified as paravertebral ganglia (ganglia trunci sympathici) and prevertebral ganglia (ganglia celiaca). SEE ALSO: autonomic division of nervous system.- g. of sympathetic trunk [TA] the clusters of postsynaptic neurons located at intervals along the sympathetic trunks, including the superior cervical, middle cervical, and cervicothoracic (stellate) g., the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral ganglia, and the g. impar. SYN: ganglia trunci sympathici [TA], chain ganglia, paravertebral ganglia.- terminal g. [TA] 1. one of the cells located along the terminal nerves; SYN: g. terminale [TA]. 2. one of the scattered postsynaptic autonomic neurons located in or close to the wall of the organ innervated; they are usually parasympathetic.- g. terminale [TA] SYN: terminal g. (1).- thoracic ganglia [TA] sympathetic ganglia, 11 or 12 on either side, at the level of the head of each rib, constituting with the interganglionic branches the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk. SYN: ganglia thoracica [TA].- ganglia thoracica [TA] SYN: thoracic ganglia.- thoracic splanchnic g. a small sympathetic g. often present in the course of the greater splanchnic nerve. SYN: g. thoracicum splanchnicum, Lobstein g..- trigeminal g. [TA] the large flattened sensory g. of the trigeminal nerve lying adjacent to the cavernous sinus along the medial part of the middle cranial fossa in the trigeminal cave (cavity) of the dura mater. SYN: g. trigeminale [TA], gasserian g., semilunar g..- g. trigeminale [TA] SYN: trigeminal g..- Troisier g. historic term for a lymph node immediately above the clavicle, especially on the left side, that is palpably enlarged as the result of a metastasis from a malignant neoplasm; the presence of such a node indicates that the probable site of primary involvement is in an abdominal organ. SEE ALSO: signal node. SYN: Troisier node.- tympanic g. a small g. on the tympanic nerve during its passage through the petrous portion of the temporal bone. SYN: g. tympanicum.- g. tympanicum tympanic g..- vertebral g. [TA] an inconstant, small g. located along the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk or one of the interganglionic branches connecting the middle cervical g. and the cervicothoracic g.; it usually lies near the vertebral artery. SYN: g. vertebrale [TA].- g. vertebrale [TA] SYN: vertebral g..- vestibular g. [TA] a collection of bipolar sensory nerve cell bodies concerned with equilibration and forming a swelling on the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve in the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus; consists of a superior part and an inferior part connected by a narrow isthmus. SYN: g. vestibulare [TA], Scarpa g..- g. vestibulare [TA] SYN: vestibular g..
* * *1) a small cystic tumor (as on the back of the wrist) containing viscid fluid and connected either with a joint membrane or tendon sheath2 a) a mass of nerve tissue containing cell bodies of neurons that is located outside the central nervous system and forms an enlargement upon a nerve or upon two or more nerves at their point of junction or separation
* * *n. (pl. ganglia)1. (in neurology) any structure containing a collection of nerve cell bodies and often also numbers of synapses. In the sympathetic nervous system chains of ganglia are found on each side of the spinal cord, while in the parasympathetic nervous system system ganglia are situated in or nearer to the organs innervated. Swellings in the posterior sensory root of the spinal nerves are termed ganglia; these contain cell bodies but no synapses. Within the central nervous system certain well-defined masses of nerve cells are called ganglia (or nuclei); for example, the basal ganglia.2. an abnormal but harmless swelling (cyst) that sometimes forms in tendon sheaths, especially at the wrist.
* * *gan·gli·on (gangґgle-on) pl. gangґlia or ganglions [Gr. â€œknotâ€] 1. a knot, or knotlike mass. 2. [TA] anatomical terminology for a group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system; occasionally applied to certain nuclear groups within the brain. 3. a benign cystic tumor occurring on an aponeurosis or tendon, as in the wrist or dorsum of the foot; it consists of a thin fibrous capsule enclosing a clear mucinous fluid.
Ganglion overlying the wrist joint and flexor tendons.
Descriptions of specific anatomic structures are given on TA terms, and include anglicized names of specific ganglia.
Medical dictionary. 2011.