- Involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and abnormal posture. These movements may involve the entire body, or only an isolated area. Symptoms may even be "task specific," such as writers cramp. Dystonia can be inherited, occur sporadically without any genetic pattern, or be associated with medications or diseases (for example, a specific form of lung cancer). The gene responsible for at least one form of dystonia has recently been identified. Some types of dystonia respond to dopamine, or
* * *A state of abnormal (either hypo- or hyper-) tonicity in any of the tissues resulting in impairment of voluntary movement. [dys- + G. tonos, tension]- d. musculorum deformans a genetic, environmental, or idiopathic disorder, usually beginning in childhood or adolescence, marked by muscular contractions that distort the spine, limbs, hips, and sometimes the cranial-innervated muscles. The abnormal movements are increased by excitement and, at least initially, abolished by sleep. The musculature is hypertonic when in action, hypotonic when at rest. Hereditary forms usually begin with involuntary posturing of the foot or hand (autosomal recessive form [MIM*224500]) or of the neck or trunk (autosomal dominant form [MIM*128100]); both forms may progress to produce contortions of the entire body. SYN: torsion disease of childhood, torsion d., Ziehen-Oppenheim disease.
* * *dys·to·nia dis-'tō-nē-ə n a state of disordered tonicity of tissues (as of muscle)dys·ton·ic -'tän-ik adj
* * *n.muscle dysfunction characterized by spasms or abnormal muscle contraction. One form is a postural disorder often associated with disease of the basal ganglia in the brain. There may be spasm in the muscles of the face, shoulders, neck, trunk, and limbs; the arm is often held in a rotated position and the head may be drawn back and to one side. Other forms of dystonia include torticollis, blepharospasm, and writer's cramp. Dystonic conditions, including blepharospasm, may be helped by the injection of botulinum toxin.• dystonic adj.
* * *dys·to·nia (dis-toґne-ə) [dys- + ton- + -ia] dyskinetic movements due to disordered tonicity of muscle; cf. dyskinesia. dystonic adj
Medical dictionary. 2011.