- The energy-yielding conversion of d-glucose to lactic acid (instead of pyruvate oxidation products) in various tissues, notably muscle, when sufficient oxygen is not available (as in an emergency situation); since molecular oxygen is not consumed in the process, this is frequently referred to as “anaerobic g.” Cf.:Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. SYN: glucolysis. [glyco- + G. lysis, a loosening]
* * *gly·col·y·sis glī-'käl-ə-səs n, pl -y·ses -.sēz the enzymatic breakdown of a carbohydrate (as glucose or glycogen) by way of phosphate derivatives with the production of pyruvic or lactic acid and energy stored in high-energy phosphate bonds of ATP called also Embden-Meyerhof pathwaygly·co·lyt·ic .glī-kə-'lit-ik adjgly·co·lyt·i·cal·ly -i-k(ə-)lē adv
* * *n.the conversion of glucose, by a series of ten enzyme-catalysed reactions, to lactic acid. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and the first nine reactions (converting glucose to pyruvate) form the first stage of cellular respiration. The process involves the production of a small amount of energy (in the form of ATP), which is used for biochemical work. The final reaction of glycolysis (converting pyruvate to lactic acid) provides energy for short periods of time when oxygen consumption exceeds demand; for example, during bursts of intense muscular activity. See also lactic acid.
* * *gly·col·y·sis (gli-kolґə-sis) [glyco- + -lysis] the anaerobic enzymatic conversion of glucose to the simpler compounds lactate and pyruvate, resulting in energy stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as occurs in muscle; it differs from respiration in that organic substances, rather than molecular oxygen, are used as electron acceptors. See Embden-Meyerhof pathway, under pathway.
Medical dictionary. 2011.