1. Tissue for transplantation, vascularized by a pedicle; f.. SEE ALSO: local f., distant f.. 2. An uncontrolled movement, as of the hands. See asterixis. [M.E. flappe]
- Abbe f. middle portion of the lower lip transferred into the upper lip and vascularized by the labial artery.
- advancement f. SYN: bipedicle f..
- arterial f. a f. with an identifiable nutrient artery and draining veins. Cf.:random pattern f..
- axial pattern f. a f. that includes a direct specific artery within its longitudinal axis.
- bipedicle f. a f. with two pedicles, one at each end. SYN: advancement f., double pedicle f..
- bone f. portion of cranium removed but left attached to overlying muscle-fascial blood supply; term is often used incorrectly for a completely detached cranial section, i.e., a bone graft.
- buried f. a f. denuded of surface epithelium and superficial dermis and transferred into the subcutaneous tissues.
- Byars f. skin f. made of dorsal prepuce to resurface the ventral penis in patients with chordee and/or hypospadias.
- composite f., compound f. a f. of 2 or more tissue elements incorporating skin, subcutaneous muscle, bone, or cartilage.
- cross f. a skin f. transferred from one part of the body to a corresponding part, as from one arm to the other.
- delayed f. a f. incised and/or raised in its donor area in two or more stages to increase its chances of survival after transfer.
- deltopectoral f. an axial pattern skin f. of the deltoid and pectoral regions, based on the internal mammary vessels.
- direct f. a f. raised completely and transferred at the same stage.
- distant f. a f. in which the donor site is distant from the recipient area. In the past this required multiple stages; now distant flaps are transferred by microvascular anastomosis of artery and vein.
- double pedicle f. SYN: bipedicle f..
- Eloesser f. a surgically created open skin-lined tract for chronic drainage of an empyema, often following pneumonectomy. SEE ALSO: Eloesser procedure.
- envelope f. a mucoperiosteal f. retracted from a horizontal incision along the free gingival margin.
- Estlander f. a full-thickness f. of the lip, transferred from the side of one lip to the same side of the other lip. Other eponymous variations of this principle are the Sabbatini, Stein, and Abbe flaps.
- Filatov f. SYN: tubed f..
- Filatov-Gillies f. SYN: tubed f..
- free f. f. in which the donor vessels are severed, the tissue is transported to another area, and the f. is revascularized by anastomosis of vessels in the recipient bed to the artery and vein(s) of the f..
- free bone f. portion of cranium removed and detached from overlying soft tissue structures.
- full-thickness f. a f. of the full thickness of mucosa and submucosa or of skin and subcutaneous tissues.
- gingival f. a portion of the gingiva whose coronal margin is surgically detached from the tooth and the alveolar process.
- hinged f. a turnover f. transferred by lifting it over as though the pedicle were a hinge.
- Indian f. f. from a contiguous area, such as cheek or forehead, used to rebuild the nose.
- interpolated f. a f. that is rotated over intact skin into an adjoining area.
- island f. a f. in which the pedicle consists solely of the supplying artery and vein(s), and sometimes a nerve.
- Italian f. f. from a distant area; usually used in reference to a f. from the upper arm to rebuild a nose.
- jump f. a distant f. transferred in stages via an intermediate carrier; e.g., an abdominal f. is attached to the wrist, and at a later stage the wrist is brought to the face.
- lined f. a f. covered with epithelium on both sides; e.g., a folded skin f..
- local f. a f. transferred to an adjacent area, with intact pedicle.
- mucoperichondrial f. a f. composed of mucous membrane and perichondrium, as from the nasal septum.
- mucoperiosteal f. a f. composed of mucous membrane and periosteum, as from the hard palate or gingiva.
- myocutaneous f. a pedicled skin f., often an island f., with attached subjacent muscle, investments, and blood supply. SYN: musculocutaneous f., myodermal f..
- myodermal f. SYN: myocutaneous f..
- neurovascular f. a f. containing a sensory nerve; used to restore sensation to the recipient area.
- omental f. a segment of omentum, with its supplying blood vessel s, transplanted either with an intact pedicle or as free tissue to a distant area and revascularized by arterial and venous anastomoses.
- osteoplastic bone f. vascularized tissue that includes living bone, usually with attached muscle and fascia, which can be attached by its pedicle or transferred by microvascular anastomosis from one site to another.
- pedicle f. in periodontal surgery, a f. used to increase the width of attached gingiva, or to cover a root surface, by moving the attached gingiva, which remains joined at one side, to an adjacent position and suturing the free end.
- pericoronal f. a f. of gingiva covering an unerupted tooth, especially the lower third molar.
- pharyngeal f. a f. of mucosa and muscle raised from the posterior wall of the pharynx and attached to the soft palate, used to obturate the velopharyngeal passage to correct nasal air escape; for patients with velopharyngeal dysfunction, usually following repair of cleft palate.
- random pattern f. a f. in which the pedicle blood supply is derived randomly from the network of vessels in the area, rather than from a single longitudinal artery as in an axial pattern f..
- rotation f. a pedicle f. that is rotated from the donor site to an adjacent recipient defect.
- skin f. a f. composed of skin and its subjacent subcutaneous tissue.
- subcutaneous f. a pedicle f. in which the pedicle is denuded of epithelium and buried in the subcutaneous tissue of the recipient area.
- tubed f. an old technique for transfer of skin in which a rectangular f. is elevated, sutured side to side, and the end of the tube inserted into another location. SYN: Filatov f., Filatov-Gillies f., tubed pedicle f..
- tubed pedicle f. SYN: tubed f..
- V-Y f. a f. in which the incision is made in a V shape and sutured in a Y shape to gain additional length of tissue. SYN: V-Y plasty.
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5-lipoxygenase activating protein

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flap 'flap n a piece of tissue partly severed from its place of origin for use in surgical grafting

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1. (in surgery) a strip of tissue dissected away from the underlying structures but left attached at one end so that it retains its blood and nerve supply in a pedicle. The flap is then used to repair a defect in another part of the body. The free end of the flap is sewn into the area to be repaired and after about three weeks, when the flap has 'healed into' its new site, the other end is detached and the remainder of the flap is sewn in. Flaps are commonly used by plastic surgeons in treating patients who have suffered severe skin and tissue loss after mutilating operations (e.g. mastectomy) or after burns or injuries not amenable to repair by split skin grafting (see skin graft). Skin flaps may also be used to cover the end of a bone in an amputated limb. In neurosurgery combined skin and bone (osteoplastic) flaps are commonly raised to provide access to the cranium.
2. (in dentistry) a piece of mucous membrane and periosteum attached by a broad base. It is lifted back to expose the underlying bone and enable a procedure such as surgical extraction to be performed. It is subsequently replaced.

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(flap) 1. a mass of tissue for grafting, usually including skin, only partially removed from one part of the body so that it retains its own blood supply during its transfer to a new location; used to repair defects in an adjacent or distant part of the body. 2. an uncontrolled movement.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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