- - backward heart f. a concept (formerly considered mutually exclusive with forward heart f.) that maintains that the phenomena of congestive heart f. result from passive engorgement of the veins caused by a “backward” rise in pressure proximal to the failing cardiac chambers. Cf.:forward heart f..- electrical f. f. in which cardiac inadequacy is secondary to disturbance of the electrical impulse.- forward heart f. a concept (formerly considered mutually exclusive with backward heart f.) that maintains that the phenomena of congestive heart f. result from the inadequate cardiac output, and especially from the consequent inadequacy of renal blood flow with resulting retention of sodium and water. Cf.:backward heart f..- heart f. 1. inadequacy of the heart so that as a pump it fails to maintain the circulation of blood, with the result that congestion and edema develop in the tissues; SYN: cardiac f., cardiac insufficiency, congestive heart f., myocardial insufficiency. SEE ALSO: forward heart f., backward heart f., right ventricular f., left ventricular f.. 2. resulting clinical syndromes include shortness of breath or nonpitting edema, enlarged tender liver, engorged neck veins, and pulmonary rales in various combinations.- high output f. heart f. in which, despite relative myocardial insufficiency and consequent congestive heart f., the cardiac output is maintained at normal or supernormal levels, as is sometimes seen in emphysema, thyrotoxicosis, etc.- left-sided heart f. inability of the left heart to maintain its circulatory load, with corresponding rise in pressure in the pulmonary circulation usually with pulmonary congestion and ultimately pulmonary edema. SYN: left ventricular f..- low output f. heart f. in which the cardiac output is subnormal, as is usually seen in f. due to coronary, hypertensive, or valvular heart disease.- pacemaker f. f. of an artificial pacemaker to generate or deliver effective stimuli to the myocardium.- pump f. a term used to emphasize mechanical default of the heart as a pump; in acute myocardial infarction, pump f. signifies congestive heart f., pulmonary edema, or cardiogenic shock. Cf.:electrical f.. SYN: power f..- pure autonomic f. a degenerative, sporadic neurologic disorder of adult onset, manifested principally as orthostatic hypotension and syncope, with no neurologic defects other than autonomic nervous system dysfunction evident; probably caused by selective degeneration of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, with denervation of smooth muscle vasculature and the adrenal glands. SYN: Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome.- renal f. loss of renal function, either acute or chronic, that results in azothemia and syndrome of uremia.- respiratory f. loss of pulmonary function either acute or chronic that results in hypoxemia or hypercarbia; final common pathway for myriad respiratory disorders.- right ventricular f. congestive heart f. manifested by distention of the neck veins, enlargement of the liver, and dependent edema due to pump f. of the right ventricle.- secondary f. 1. f. of the function of an organ as a result of antecedent pathology elsewhere; 2. decreasing responsiveness to a drug after an initial satisfactory response, usually occurring several months after initiation of treatment.- f. to thrive a condition in which an infant's weight gain and growth are far below usual levels for age.
* * *fail·ure 'fā(ə)l-yər n a state of inability to perform a vital function <acute renal \failure> <respiratory \failure> see HEART FAILURE
* * *fail·ure (fālґyər) inability to perform or to achieve a desired outcome; see also insufficiency.
Medical dictionary. 2011.