1. Food and drink in general. 2. A prescribed course of eating and drinking in which the amount and kind of food, as well as the times at which it is to be taken, are regulated for therapeutic purposes. 3. Reduction of caloric intake so as to lose weight. 4. To follow any prescribed or specific d.. [G. diaita, a way of life; a d.]
- acid-ash d. SYN: alkaline-ash d..
- alkaline-ash d. a d. consisting mainly of fruits, vegetables, and milk (with minimal amounts of meat, fish, eggs, cheese, and cereals), which, when catabolized, leave an alkaline residue to be excreted in the urine. SYN: acid-ash d., basic d..
- balanced d. a d. containing the essential nutrients with a reasonable ration of all the major food groups.
- basal d. 1. a d. having a caloric value equal to the basal heat production and sufficient quanties of essential nutrients to meet basic needs; 2. in experiments in nutrition, a d. complete and adequate except for a single constituent ( e.g., a vitamin, mineral, or amino acid), the nutritional value of which is to be determined, is omitted for a period and the effects observed; the subject is observed for a second period during which the ingredient being studied is added to the d..
- basic d. SYN: alkaline-ash d..
- bland d. a regular d. omitting foods that mechanically or chemically irritate the gastrointestinal tract.
- BRAT d. a limited d. often used in regimens for acute gastroenteritides; acronym for bananas, rice, apples (juice or sauce), and toast.
- challenge d. a d. in which one or more specific substances are included for the purpose of determining whether an abnormal reaction occurs.
- clear liquid d. a d., often used postoperatively, consisting usually of water, tea, coffee, gelatin preparations, and clear soups or broth.
- diabetic d. a dietary adjustment for patients with diabetes mellitus intended to decrease the need for insulin or oral diabetic agents and control weight by adjusting caloric and carbohydrate intake.
- elimination d. a d. designed to detect what ingredient of the food causes allergic manifestations in the patient; food items to which the patient may be sensitive are withdrawn separately and successively from the d. until that which causes the symptoms is discovered.
- full liquid d. a d. consisting only of liquids but including cream soups, ice cream, and milk.
- Giordano-Giovannetti d. a d. designed for patients with renal failure; it provides small amounts of protein, primarily as essential amino acid s, along with alpha-keto derivatives of amino acid s; breakdown of protein in skeletal muscle is retarded and, because transaminase reactions are reversible, a small proportion of the ammonia released by urea breakdown is used for synthesis of nonessential amino acid s. SYN: Giovannetti d..
- Giovannetti d. SYN: Giordano-Giovannetti d..
- gluten-free d. elimination of all wheat, rye, barley, and oat gluten from the d.; treatment for gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease). See celiac disease.
- gout d. a d. containing a minimal quantity of purine bases (meats); liver, kidney, and sweetbread especially are excluded and replaced by dairy products, fruits, and cereals; alcoholic beverages also are excluded. SYN: purine-free d..
- high-calorie d. a d. containing upward of 4,000 calories per day.
- high-fat d. a d. containing large amounts of fat.
- high-fiber d. a d. high in the nondigestible part of plants, which is fiber. Fiber is found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. Insoluble fiber increases stool bulk, decreases transit time of food in the bowel, and decreases constipation and the risk of colon cancer. Soluble fiber delays absorption of glucose, which helps to control blood sugar in diabetes mellitus, and delays absorption of lipids, which helps to control hyperlipidemia. Recommended in treatment of diverticular disease of the colon.
- Kempner d. SYN: rice d..
- ketogenic d. a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and normal protein d. causing ketosis.
- low-calorie d. a d. of 1,200 calories or less per day.
- low-fat d. a d. containing a minimal proportion of fat.Diets containing low amounts of fat and cholesterol are designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, specifically atherosclerosis. The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends maintaining a total cholesterol level of no more than 200 mg/dL, with LDL cholesterol less than 130 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol at least 60 mg/dL. (According to the National Institutes of Health, LDL cholesterol in patients with atherosclerotic heart disease should not exceed 100 mg/dL.) About one-half of adult Americans exceed these total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol limits; for many, the reason is an inborn metabolic disorder of lipid metabolism not correctable by dietary restrictions alone. A low-fat d. should derive less than 10% of its calories from saturated fat (meats, dairy products) and should be low in cholesterol (<300 mg/d) and trans fatty acid s (e.g., hydrogenated oils as in stick margarine and shortening) and rich in whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, and legumes. People who follow an extremely low-fat d. experience some reversal in atherosclerosis despite a concomitant decrease in HDL cholesterol. A low-fat d. may also help decrease body weight or prevent weight gain, because fats and oils yield more than twice as many calories per gram as carbohydrate and protein foods. See atherosclerosis; free radical.
- low purine d. a d. low in precursors of purines (such as tissues rich in cells with abundant nuclei, as in liver, glandular meats, etc.) to minimize formation of uric acid. Useful in treatment of patients with gout or urate-containing renal calculi.
- low residue d. a d. that leaves minimal unabsorbed components in the intestine, to minimize functional stress on the colon.
- low salt d. a d. with restricted amounts of sodium chloride, useful in the treatment of some cases of hypertension, heart failure, and other syndromes characterized by fluid retention and/or edema formation.
- macrobiotic d. a d. claimed to promote longevity, often by promoting an emphasis on natural foods and restrictions on noncereal foods, as well as liquids.
- Meulengracht d. a feeding program for patients with peptic ulcer disease, containing a relatively full d. free of acidic or highly seasoned food.
- Minot-Murphy d. the use of large amounts of raw liver in the treatment of pernicious anemia. First successes in the treatment of this disease occurred with this d. and led to development of liver extract for treatment.
- Ornish prevention diets relaxed versions of the Ornish reversal d., which is designed to prevent coronary artery disease. These diets reduce dietary fat in proportion to blood cholesterol level.
- Ornish reversal d. a d. designed by Dean Ornish, who has evidence that it will reverse coronary artery disease. It consists of 10% of calories from fat (mostly polyunsaturated or monounsaturated, with 5 mg cholesterol per day), 70–75% from carbohydrate, and 15–20% from protein.
- purine-free d. SYN: gout d..
- purine-restricted d. gout d..
- rachitic d. a d. that will induce rickets in susceptible experimental animals.
- reducing d. a d. in which caloric expenditure is greater than caloric intake.
- rice d. a d. of rice, fruit, and sugar, plus vitamin and iron supplements, devised by Kempner to treat hypertension. In 2,000 calories, the d. contains 5 gm or less of fat, about 20 gm of protein, and not more than 150 mg of sodium. SYN: Kempner d..
- Schmidt d. SYN: Schmidt-Strassburger d..
- Schmidt-Strassburger d. an obsolete d. designed to facilitate examination of the stools in patients with diarrhea, consisting of milk, zwieback, oatmeal gruel, eggs, butter, small amounts of beef and potato. SYN: Schmidt d..
- Sippy d. a d. formerly used in the initial stages of treatment of peptic ulcer, beginning with milk and cream every hour or two to keep gastric acid neutralized, gradually increasing to include cereal, eggs and crackers after three days, pureed vegetables later.
- smooth d. a d. containing little roughage; used primarily in diseases of the colon.
- soft d. a normal d. limited to soft foods for those who have difficulty chewing or swallowing; there are no restrictions on seasoning or method of food preparation.
- subsistence d. a meager d. providing barely enough for sustenance.
- Wilder d. obsolete d., low in potassium, for treating Addison disease.
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Dietary Intervention: Evaluation of Technology [study]

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di·et 'dī-ət n
1) food and drink regularly provided or consumed
2) habitual nourishment
3) the kind and amount of food prescribed for a person or animal for a special reason
4) a regimen of eating and drinking sparingly so as to reduce one's weight <going on a \diet>
diet vt
1) to cause to take food
2) to cause to eat and drink sparingly or according to prescribed rules vi to eat sparingly or according to prescribed rules
diet adj reduced in calories <a \diet soft drink>

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the mixture of foods that a person eats. A balanced diet contains the correct proportions of all the nutrients, i.e. vitamins, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulphur, magnesium, and the trace element), and dietary fibre, as well as water, carbohydrates and fats (which provide energy), and proteins (required for growth and maintenance).

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di·et (diґət) [Gr. diaita way of living] the customary allowance of food and drink taken by any person from day to day, particularly one especially planned to meet specific requirements of the individual, and including or excluding certain items of food. dietary adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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