**formal operations stage** — See Piaget , Jean … Dictionary of sociology

**operations research** — the analysis, usually involving mathematical treatment, of a process, problem, or operation to determine its purpose and effectiveness and to gain maximum efficiency. [1940 45, Amer.] * * * Application of scientific methods to management and… … Universalium

**Formal concept analysis** — is a principled way of automatically deriving an ontology from a collection of objects and their properties. The term was introduced by Rudolf Wille in 1984, and builds on applied lattice and order theory that was developed by Birkhoff and others … Wikipedia

**Formal equivalence checking** — process is a part of electronic design automation (EDA), commonly used during the development of digital integrated circuits, to formally prove that two representations of a circuit design exhibit exactly the same behavior. Equivalence checking… … Wikipedia

**Formal power series** — In mathematics, formal power series are devices that make it possible to employ much of the analytical machinery of power series in settings that do not have natural notions of convergence. They are also useful, especially in combinatorics, for… … Wikipedia

**Formal language** — A formal language is a set of words , i.e. finite strings of letters , or symbols . The inventory from which these letters are taken is called the alphabet over which the language is defined. A formal language is often defined by means of a… … Wikipedia

**Operations research** — For the academic journal, see Operations Research: A Journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences. Operations research (also referred to as decision science, or management science) is an interdisciplinary… … Wikipedia

**Formal interpretation** — A formal interpretation [http://books.google.com/books?id=weKqT3ka5g0C pg=PA74 lpg=PA74 dq=%22Formal+interpretation%22+%22formal+language%22 source=web ots=pLN ms7Wi2 sig=P JqwdzOqLcX4nMpP64qmacnkDU hl=en#PPA74,M1 Cann Ronnie, Formal Semantics:… … Wikipedia

**Formal proof** — See also: mathematical proof, proof theory, and axiomatic system A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of sentences (called well formed formulas in the case of a formal language) each of which is an axiom or follows from the… … Wikipedia

**Formal science** — A formal science is a theoretical study that is concerned with theoretical formal systems, for instance, logic, mathematics, systems theory and the theoretical branches of computer science, information theory, economics, statistics, and… … Wikipedia