A derivative of barbituric acid, including phenobarbital and others, that act as CNS depressants and are used for their tranquilizing, hypnotic, and anti-seizure effects; most barbiturates have the potential for abuse.

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bar·bi·tu·rate bär-'bich-ə-rət, -.rāt; .bär-bə-'t(y)u̇r-ət, -'t(y)u̇(ə)r-.āt n
1) a salt or ester of barbituric acid
2) any of various derivatives of barbituric acid (as phenobarbital) that are used esp. as sedatives, hypnotics, and antispasmodics and are often addictive

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any of a group of drugs, derived from barbituric acid, that depress activity of the central nervous system and were formerly widely used as sedatives and hypnotics. They are classified into three groups according to their duration of action - short, medium, and long. Because they produce tolerance and psychological and physical dependence, have serious toxic side-effects (see barbiturism), and can be fatal following large over-dosage, barbiturates have been largely replaced in clinical use by safer drugs. The main exception is the very short-acting drug thiopental, which is used to induce anaesthesia. See also amobarbital, butobarbital, phenobarbital.

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bar·bi·tur·ate (bahr-bichґər-ət) any of a class of sedative-hypnotic agents derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid and classified into long-, intermediate-, short-, and ultrashort-acting classes. The ultrashort-acting barbiturates, e.g., thiopental, are used as intravenous anesthetics. The long-acting barbiturate phenobarbital is an important anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many other barbiturates were widely used as sedatives or hypnotics, but benzodiazepines have replaced them in most uses. Some of these have a high potential for abuse.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Barbiturate — sind Derivate der Barbitursäure, allerdings keine Salze oder Ester, wie der Name suggeriert. Die meist aliphatischen Substituenten sind gewöhnlich am C5 der Barbitursäure zu finden. Barbitursäure wurde erstmals 1864 von Adolf von Baeyer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • barbiturate — index narcotic Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • barbiturate — [baʀbityʀat] n. m. ÉTYM. 1898, Larousse; de barbitur(ique), et ate. ❖ ♦ Chim., pharm. Sel ou ester de l acide barbiturique. || Usage thérapeutique des barbiturates. ⇒ Barbiturique. || Intoxication par les barbiturates …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Barbiturate — Barbiturate,   Singular Barbiturat das, s, die (therapeutisch verwendeten) Abwandlungsprodukte der Barbitursäure …   Universal-Lexikon

  • barbiturate — 1928, from German, coined 1863 by chemist Adolf von Baeyer (1835 1917) from Barbitursäure barbituric acid, coined by Baeyer, perhaps from woman s name BARBARA (Cf. Barbara), or perhaps from L. barbata, in M.L. usnea barbata, lit. bearded moss.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • barbiturate — ► NOUN ▪ any of a class of sedative drugs related to a synthetic compound (barbituric acid) derived from uric acid. ORIGIN from barbituric acid, from German Barbitursäure, from the name Barbara + Ursäure uric acid …   English terms dictionary

  • barbiturate — [bär bich′ər it, bär bich′ə rāt΄; bär΄bə tyoor′it, bär΄bətoor′it, bär΄bə tyo͞or′āt΄ bär΄bə toor′āt΄; ] often [, bär΄bich′ə wit] n. [ BARBITURIC ACID + ATE2] any depressant drug, as phenobarbital, derived from barbituric acid and used as a… …   English World dictionary

  • Barbiturate — Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics and as anticonvulsants. They …   Wikipedia

  • barbiturate — /bahr bich euhr it, euh rayt ; bahr bi toor it, ayt, tyoor /, n. Pharm. any of a group of barbituric acid derivatives, used in medicine as sedatives and hypnotics. [1925 30; BARBITUR(IC) + ATE2] * * * Any of a class of heterocyclic compounds… …   Universalium

  • barbiturate — UK [bɑː(r)ˈbɪtʃʊrət] / US [bɑrˈbɪtʃərət] noun [countable] Word forms barbiturate : singular barbiturate plural barbiturates medical a strong drug that doctors give to people to make them calm or help them sleep …   English dictionary

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