# Calculus, renal

Calculus, renal
A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). Also called a kidney stone. The stones themselves are called renal caluli. The word “calculus” (plural: calculi) is the Latin word for pebble. Renal stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones occur in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life. The development of the stones is related to decreased urine volume or increased excretion of stone-forming components such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate. The stones form in the urine collecting area (the pelvis) of the kidney and may range in size from tiny to staghorn stones the size of the renal pelvis itself. The cystine stones (below) compared in size to a quarter (a U.S. \$0.25 coin) were obtained from the kidney of a young woman by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL), a procedure for crushing and removing the dense stubborn stones characteristic of cystinuria. The pain with kidney stones is usually of sudden onset, very severe and colicky (intermittent), not improved by changes in position, radiating from the back, down the flank, and into the groin. Nausea and vomiting are common. Factors predisposing to kidney stones include recent reduction in fluid intake, increased exercise with dehydration, medications that cause hyperuricemia (high uric acid) and a history of gout. Treatment includes relief of pain, hydration and, if there is concurrent urinary infection, antibiotics. The majority of stones pass spontaneously within 48 hours. However, some stones may not. There are several factors which influence the ability to pass a stone. These include the size of the person, prior stone passage, prostate enlargement, pregnancy, and the size of the stone. A 4 mm stone has an 80% chance of passage while a 5 mm stone has a 20% chance. If a stone does not pass, certain procedures (usually done by a urology specialist) may be needed. The process of stone formation is called nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis. “Nephrolithiasis” is derived from the Greek nephros- (kidney) lithos (stone) = kidney stone “Urolithiasis” is from the French word “urine” which, in turn, stems from the Latin “urina” and the Greek “ouron” meaning urine = urine stone.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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• Renal calculus — (Med.), an abnormal concretion formed in the excretory passages of the kidney, composed primarily of calcium oxalates and phosphates; also called {kidney stone}, {nephrolith}, and {nephritic calculus} (an obsolete term). [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• calculus — /kal kyeuh leuhs/, n., pl. calculi / luy /, calculuses. 1. Math. a method of calculation, esp. one of several highly systematic methods of treating problems by a special system of algebraic notations, as differential or integral calculus. 2.… …   Universalium

• Renal pelvis — Infobox Anatomy Name = PAGENAME Latin = p. renalis GraySubject = 253 GrayPage = 1221 Caption = Frontal section through kidney. Caption2 = 1. Renal pyramid 2. Efferent artery 3. Renal artery 4. Renal vein 5. Renal hilum 6. Renal pelvis 7. Ureter 8 …   Wikipedia

• renal — /reen l/, adj. of or pertaining to the kidneys or the surrounding regions. [1650 60; < LL renalis, equiv. to L ren(es) kidneys (pl.) + alis AL1] * * * (as used in expressions) renal failure renal calculus renal transplant renal cell carcinoma… …   Universalium

• renal calculus — n KIDNEY STONE * * * a urinary calculus in the kidney; called also nephritic c., nephrolith, and kidney stone …   Medical dictionary

• renal colic — n the severe pain produced by the passage of a calculus from the kidney through the ureter * * * pain produced by thrombosis or dissection of the renal artery, renal infarction, intrarenal mass lesions, the passage of a stone within the… …   Medical dictionary

• Calculus — A stone, as in the urinary tract. Also, the calcium salt deposits on the teeth. The word calculus in Latin means a pebble. Pebbles were once used for counting, from which came the mathematical field of calculus. A urinary calculus is a pebble in… …   Medical dictionary

• calculus — n. mathematical method 1) differential; integral; vector calculus deposit formed in an organ of the body 2) a renal; urinary calculus * * * [ kælkjʊləs] integral urinary calculus vector calculus [ deposit formed in an organ of the body ] a renal… …   Combinatory dictionary

• nephritic calculus — Renal calculus Renal calculus (Med.), an abnormal concretion formed in the excretory passages of the kidney, composed primarily of calcium oxalates and phosphates; also called {kidney stone}, {nephrolith}, and {nephritic calculus} (an obsolete… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Calculus (medicine) — A calculus is a stone (a concretion of material, usually mineral salts) that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Stones cause a number of important medical conditions.Common stone diseasesA number of important medical conditions are caused by… …   Wikipedia