# broadening

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**Cyclotron radiation**— is electromagnetic radiation emitted by moving charged particles deflected by a magnetic field. The Lorentz force on the particles acts perpendicular to both the magnetic field lines and the particles motion through them, creating an acceleration …52

**spectroscopy**— spectroscopist /spek tros keuh pist/, n. /spek tros keuh pee, spek treuh skoh pee/, n. the science that deals with the use of the spectroscope and with spectrum analysis. [1865 70; SPECTRO + SCOPY] * * * Branch of analysis devoted to identifying… …53

**Cauchy distribution**— Not to be confused with Lorenz curve. Cauchy–Lorentz Probability density function The purple curve is the standard Cauchy distribution Cumulative distribution function …54

**Nuclear magnetic resonance**— This article is about the physical phenomenon. For its use as a method in spectroscopy, see Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR redirects here. For other uses, see NMR (disambiguation). First 1 GHz NMR Spectrometer (1000 MHz,… …55

**Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)**— In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one. The idea is to start with a simple system for which a …56

**List of probability distributions**— Many probability distributions are so important in theory or applications that they have been given specific names.Discrete distributionsWith finite support* The Bernoulli distribution, which takes value 1 with probability p and value 0 with… …57

**Fluxional molecule**— Fluxional molecules are molecules that undergo dynamics such that some or all of their atoms interchange between symmetry equivalent positions. Because virtually all molecules are fluxional in some respects, e.g. bond rotations in most organic… …58

**Microturbulence**— is a form of turbulence that varies over small distance scales. (Large scale turbulence is called macroturbulence.) Contents 1 Stellar 2 Magnetic nuclear fusion 3 Oceanography 4 References …59

**Stellar rotation**— is the angular motion of a star about its axis. The rate of rotation can be measured from the spectrum of the star, or by timing the movements of active features on the surface.The rotation of a star produces an equatorial bulge due to… …60

**Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue**— Photon transport in biological tissue can be equivalently modeled numerically with Monte Carlo simulations or analytically by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). However, the RTE is difficult to solve without introducing approximations. A… …